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YOU ARE MY SON; THIS DAY I HAVE BEGOTTEN YOU (Ps2:7)

YOU ARE MY SON; THIS DAY I HAVE BEGOTTEN YOU (Ps2:7)

The Lord hath said to me: Thou art my son, this day I have begotten thee. Ask of me, and I will give thee the Gentiles for thy inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession. (Psalm 2:7, 8)

Christ did not become King to exact tribute, to equip armies, nor subdue visible foes

What a stupendous thing it was for the King of the ages to become King of men! For Christ did not become King of Israel to exact tribute, to equip armies with swords, nor subdue visible foes. He became King of Israel that he might rule over men’s souls, counsel them about eternity, that he might lead to the kingdom of heaven those who believe in him, hope in him, and love him.

Christ became King that he might rule over men’s souls, counsel them about eternity, that he might lead to the kingdom of heaven those who believe in him, hope in him, and love him.

Accordingly, it was not to increase his power, but condescension on his part that made him – the Son of God, co-equal with the Father, the Word by whom all things were made – wish to become King of Israel. It was an indication of his mercy; it did not augment his power.

He who on earth was called King of the Jews, in heaven is called Lord of the angels. But is Christ King of the Jews only, and not King of the Gentiles, too? Yes, he is King of the Gentiles, too. When in prophecy he said, “But I have established my kingdom upon Sion, my holy mountain. I will proclaim the decree of the Lord,” he added immediately so that the mention of Mount Sion might not lead men to believe he had been anointed King of the Jews solely: “You are my Son; this day I have begotten you. Ask of me and I will give you the nations for an inheritance, and the ends of the earth for your possession.

– St Augustine, Bishop, Treatise 51 on John 12-13, and Treatise 117 on John 19-20, from: An Approved English Translation of the Breviarium Romanum, Burns & Oates, London, 1964

 
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Posted by on November 20, 2016 in Words of Wisdom

 

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SOLEMNITY OF CHRIST THE KING, BIBLE READING II (COLOSSIANS 1:12-20)

SOLEMNITY OF CHRIST THE KING, BIBLE READING II (COLOSSIANS 1:12-20)

He has created a place for us in the kingdom of the Son that he loves.

We give thanks to the Father who has made it possible for you to join the saints and with them to inherit the light. Because that is what he has done: he has taken us out of the power of darkness and created a place for us in the kingdom of the Son that he loves, and in him, we gain our freedom, the forgiveness of our sins.

He is the image of the unseen God and the first-born of all creation, for in him were created all things in heaven and on earth: everything visible and everything invisible, Thrones, Dominations, Sovereignties, Powers – all things were created through him and for him. Before anything was created, he existed, and he holds all things in unity.

Now the Church is his body, he is its head. As he is the Beginning, he was first to be born from the dead, so that he should be first in every way; because God wanted all perfection to be found in him and all things to be reconciled through him and for him, everything in heaven and everything on earth, when he made peace by his death on the cross.

V. The word of the Lord. R. Thanks be to God.

 
 

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THE BLESSING OF BEING A CATHOLIC CHRISTIAN

There is perhaps nothing that should give us more comfort in these troubled times than the thought that we are members of the one true Church  instituted by Christ, who said to His disciples: “I shall be with you all days, even to the consummation of the world.” [Mt 28:20]. Whatever may happen in this world, however great may be the disasters that befall it, however many the difficulties, hardships and sufferings that life at any time may present, there remains the indubitable fact that Christ, the Son of God, is ever in our midst to support and to guide by His omnipotent strength and unerring wisdom His Church and all who are members of it.

“Behold, I shall be with you all days” (Mt28:20b)

But it is not every Catholic who fully understands or realises what this means, and so he fails in a greater or less degree to profit by and to enjoy the immense consolation that might be his. Let him reflect that being a Catholic makes him a member of the great Mystical Body of Christ, the Church, the Head of which is Christ Himself, and which embraces not only all Catholics upon earth but the countless multitude of the saints in heaven, as well as all the suffering souls in purgatory, who, although unable to help themselves, can – as most theologians teach – most efficaciously help us by the assistance of their prayers.

Christ is the Head and we His Body – the Mystical Body, the Church, is as real and true as any physical body

The Catholic must conceive of this Mystical Body that though by its nature supernatural and spiritual it is none the less a very real and true Body, as real and true as is any physical body. It derives its life not only, though principally and essentially, from its Divine Head, but from all its members as well, who work together for the good of the whole. Every member of the Body is bound to contribute his share, great or little as it may be, to the general benefit of the other members, just as every member of a physical body is necessary for its complete health and maintenance. When any member or part of a human body is hurt or sick, the rest of the members of that body come to its relief and help to its restoration and renewed health, whenever and as far as this is possible.

A true “team effort”

So he who would have a right understanding of what it means to be a Catholic must bear in mind that he is a member of a Body where all, without exception, who make up that Body are concerned to bring about his spiritual and eternal well-being, as well as their own. The mistake for any one to make is to look upon himself as isolated and apart from the other members, independent of them and capable of procuring his final salvation without their aid. Such a one has not grasped the meaning of the Communion of Saints: he does not see that if he be finally saved, he will be saved not as one individual, aloof from all others, but as being a living member of the whole Body which is saved. So when a sinner repents and turns to God, it is primarily and chiefly because Christ, the Head of the Church, died for him on the Cross, but also because other members of Christ’s Body by their holy lives and prayers are continually making intercession for all sinners, so that Christ’s redemptive work may have its desired effect.

“You are always on our mind…”

This, then, is one of the consolations a Catholic can enjoy, that though he is often tempted and sometimes falls into sin, yet he is ever in the mind of Christ and the faithful fellow members of Christ’s Body, who, if he will only avail himself of their help, will bring him back to spiritual life and the privileges of grace of which they are the possessors.

Certain and glorious victory

It is the thought of this immense and unlimited strength upon which he can draw that gives a Catholic confidence and courage to go on with his struggle against evil and to advance ever more in a life of holiness in the service of God. He knows that he is not alone but is attended by untold millions of holy men and women in heaven and on earth, who recognise in him one of their own great body and are ready at his every moment and step to proffer him help. He is in truth one of a vast and all-conquering army in whose certain and glorious victory he can share, if only he will identify himself with that army and strive to be a faithful soldier in its ranks. What matter if the campaign be a hard one, fought amid all the evils of a disrupted and ruinous world, when he can be persuaded that the struggle is a comparatively very brief one and that at the end, with the rest of his fellow soldiers, he will join their great Leader who already by His own life and death has secured the victory and is waiting to give him a share in His own everlasting glory and happiness.

“Go ye and teach all nations”

These, to the Catholic who will think, are not empty words, the effervescence of a poor rhetoric. They are the exact and solemn truth, the teachings of his Faith. With that great blessing of Faith, for which he can never thank God enough, he knows to that together with all the other members of Christ’s Mystical Body there is offered up for him every day and all day the sacrifice of the Mass, which continues the great sacrifice of the Cross and bears equal merit and fruit. In addition he has the help of the Sacraments, especially those of the Holy Eucharist and Penance; and he may hope that when he is dying he may receive Extreme Unction, to be forgiven his sins, to be strengthened and consoled, and to be admitted sooner to the unclouded and full vision of God. All these are undoubted blessings, the thought of which serve to console a Catholic amid the difficulties that confront him to-day. He is the more grateful for the gift of Faith when he sees around him so many who are without that support and know not where to turn to find relief in their miseries. Their unhappy condition ought to be a spur to his zeal. The Church is a great missionary organisation, as its Divine Founder declared when He said to His disciples, “Go ye and teach all nations,” and every Catholic is a member of it and is called upon, at least by his example and prayers, to further its purpose, which is none less than the conversion of the world. He should know that he will best promote his own interests by forgetting and sacrificing himself for the good of others; by taking an intelligent interest in the welfare of the Church in general and of his own parish in particular; by participating, as far as his opportunities and conditions of life allow, in all that active work which aims at the spread of Catholic truth and at bringing within Christ’s fold those irreligious and unbelieving souls who form, alas! such a large part of the world to-day.

The virtue of charity, the distinguishing mark of every genuine follower of Christ

To act this way is to exercise the great virtue of charity, which must be the distinguishing mark of every genuine follower of Christ. On the other hand, it will be seen how radically false is the piety of those who, though they frequent church, are so absorbed in themselves and their spiritual welfare as never to consider the needs of others or to raise a little finger to help them. Indeed they may be noted for their uncharitable conversation and their harsh condemnation of others.

The good Catholic will make no such grievous mistakes. He will realise how spurious is a [“faith”] that is not infused with the love of God and of his neighbour; and he will be suspicious of all [“faith”] that concentrates almost solely on self and has no remembrance in prayers and good works for the Church as a whole, the Mystical Body of Christ, of which he is privileged to be a member. In recounting the consolations his religion affords him – the certainty of its truth, the help of the Sacraments, the hope of eternal felicity – he will let no day pass without thanking God for the blessing of being Catholic.

– From: Lift Up Your Hearts, Christopher J. Wilmot, S. J., The Catholic Book Club, London, 1949

 

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THE CHURCH AS IT NOW EXISTS IS COMMONLY ALLUDED TO AS THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN

Homilies of St Gregory, Pope

Homily 38 on the Gospel

Remember that I have said on many occasions that in the holy Gospel the Church as it now exists is commonly alluded to as the kingdom of heaven. It is called the kingdom of heaven inasmuch as it is a congregation of the just. The Lord declared through the words of his prophet: “Heaven is my throne.” Solomon said, “The soul of the righteous is the throne of wisdom,” while Paul calls Christ “the power of God and the wisdom of God.” This we may conclude with certainty. If the wisdom is God, and the throne of the righteous the throne of wisdom, and the throne of God heaven, the soul of the righteous is therefore, heaven. Therefore, too, can the Psalmist say, “The heavens show forth the glory of God.”

– From: An Approved English Translation of the Breviarium Romanum, Burns & Oates, London, 1964

 

 

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“HAVE COURAGE” – ST JOAN ANTIDE-THOURET

“[On]  24th August, one of the saints remembered by the Church is St Joan Antide-Thouret. She was born in France in 1755 and lived at a time of great change during the French Revolution but this did not stop St Joan from living the life and vocation that she wanted.

A time of great change during the French Revolution

At the age of sixteen, after her mother had died, St Joan looked after her father in the village of Besancon. However, in 1787 she felt called by God to enter the Sisters of Charity at Paris. There two serious illnesses interrupted her religious training and in 1794, due to the turmoil around them, the sisters had to disperse.

Due to the turmoil, the sisters had to disperse

St Joan returned to her hometown and ran a school for the village children. When political conditions improved the local Vicar General invited St Joan to open a bigger school and, after some reluctance due to her feeling inadequate, this was achieved in April 1799. Six months later St Joan added a soup kitchen and a dispensary.

In obedience to her Bishop

Some critics denounced her for not returning to her original community of sisters. She countered this by saying that she had not yet taken religious vows and was now acting in obedience to her Bishop. St Joan also ran a female asylum at Belleveaux, which housed orphans, criminals, the homeless and women with mental illness. She and others laboured there in the asylum under hopeless conditions, and opponents again criticised her for undertaking this work.

Let’s despise the world and its false gods. Let’s despise its honours. In vain would we seek our happiness in them.

However, St Joan pressed on with this work, encouraging others with her example and writings. In one letter to a fellow worker she wrote: ‘How are you? Still holding on firmly to the handles of the plough? Is the ground hard and dry? Is the corn growing well? The weeds not stifling it? If so, dig out the weeds with a hoe, without damaging the corn. Have courage. The good corn of the elect will ripen and will nourish you for eternal life. Prune the vine well. You will drink the good wine in long draughts in paradise. But to merit this happiness, let’s not tire of fighting during this exile. Let’s despise the world and its false gods. Let’s despise its honours. In vain would we seek our happiness in them. It will benefit us greatly to receive nothing from the world but ingratitude and opposition. This will detach us from it and attach us closely to God alone. You face many troubles in serving these poor people entrusted to you. I am sure that you do so from charity and the love of God.’

This will detach us from the world and attach us closely to God alone.

By 1810 St Joan’s community had spread to Switzerland, Savoy and Naples, where St Joan had gone to administer a hospital. In 1819 the Pope approved this order as the Daughters of Charity. St Joan died in Naples in 1826. She is an inspiration to those of us who wish to do the work of God whilst fighting against opposition, misunderstanding, criticism, feeling inadequate and the pettiness of others. St Joan did it and so can we.”

– From: Spiritual Thought from Fr Chris/2015

 

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OUTLAWED FOR BEING A CATHOLIC CHRISTIAN: ACCOUNTS OF BRINDLE & HOGHTON TOWER, LANCASHIRE, ENGLAND

From then he was declared an outlaw

“Whether we consider the castellated tower – one of the finest in the kingdom, or the pride of the de Houghtons – or the heroic sacrifice which the head of the family made in leaving it and his country for religion’s sake, or, again, the constancy of the country people which has persevered to this day, despite the forcible Protestantism of the hero’s grandson, on each of these accounts Hoghton and Brindle are unequalled in interest even in Catholic Lancashire.

‘At Houghton Hygh, which is a bower

Of sports and lordly pleasure,

I wept and left that lofty tower

Which was my chiefest treasure.

To save my soule and lose ye reste

Yt was my trew pretence;

Lyke frightened bird, I left my neste

To keep my conscience.’

Mr. Gillow says on the death of his father, August 5, 1558, Thomas Hoghton succeeded to the family estates. At this period William Allen, afterwards Cardinal, visited Lancashire, and was a guest at Hoghton Tower. In common with the gentry and people of Lancashire, Hoghton repudiated the new religion which was being forced upon the country.

Every type of pressure was devised by the government to force Catholic Christians to renounce the Faith

Every kind of pressure was devised by the Council to drive the people into attendance at the Protestant service. Fines and imprisonment were inflicted in rapid succession, and Catholics were outlawed and deprived of all protection. Under these circumstances, feeling that he could not remain in the country and keep his conscience, Hoghton took the advice of his friend Vivian Haydock, and in 1569 he hired a vessel and sailed from his mansion of The Lea, on the Rible, to the coast of France, and thence proceeded to Antwerp. From this he was declared an outlaw, and possession was taken of his estates.

The state took possession of his estates

On March 17, 1576, his half-brother Richard obtained a licence from Queen Elizabeth to visit the exile in Antwerp, with intent to persuade him to submit to the royal pleasure. Hoghton was anxious to return, but could not make terms with the Court to retain his religion; he therefore remained in exile until his death, which occurred at Liege, June 2, 1580, aged sixty-three. He was buried under the high altar of the English College, Douai, which he had helped to found. He charged his executors to remove his body to the place where his ancestors lay in the parish church of Preston, of which the Hoghtons were patrons, when God should have mercy on his country, and restore to it the Catholic Faith and service.

‘Hys lyfe a mirrour was to all,

Hys death wythout offence;

Confessor, then, lett us him call,

O blessed conscience.’

His son and namesake, Thomas Hoghton, went with his father into exile, and was not recognised on the escheat in 1580. He was placed with Dr. Allen at Douai College, whence he left to visit his father in Brabant in 1577. He probably returned, for he matriculated in the University of Douai, was ordained priest, and proceeded to the English Mission. He had no sooner arrived in Lancashire than he was seized and thrown into Salford Gaol, where great numbers of recusants were confined.

The great band of confessors of the Faith who perished in prison unrecorded

There his name appears in the list of priests returned to the Council by Edmund Trafford and Robert Worsley in 1582. He was one of those who ‘do still contynue in their obstinate opynions; neyther do wee see anye likelyhoode of conformytie in any of them.’ His name continues in the lists of recusants imprisoned at Salford until January, 1584, after which it is lost sight of, and in all probability he went to swell the great band of confessors of the Faith who perished in prison unrecorded.

The half-brother of the exile, and curiously his namesake, Thomas Hoghton, was slain in a feud with the Baron of Newton in 1589, and his eldest son, being a minor, was given in ward to Sir Gilbert Gerard, the Master of the Rolls, to be brought up a Protestant. This system of gaining over Catholic families to the new religion was constantly practised, as in the case of Sir Roger Bradshaigh and others who were cruelly robbed of the Faith. All the rest of the family were true to the old religion, and the Hoghtons would still have been Catholics but for this unjust proceeding. Thus wrote Mr. Gillow in 1887, but recently the heir to the Hoghton estates has become a Catholic, and having married a Catholic lady, their children are being educated in the Faith for which the de Hoghton of 1580 was so staunch a confessor.

It is of interest to remember that it was at Hoghton Tower in 1617 that King James, in the present banqueting hall, solemnly knighted the Sirloin of Beef, an incident which the writers of the Victorian History of Lancashire, despite their very full account of Hoghton, have thought fit to omit. Possibly the facts are none too decorous, but the incident tells us much of the manners of the royal guest and his court.

Venerable Edmund Arrowsmith

To turn now to matters more ecclesiastical, the earlier directories of the Archdiocese of Liverpool (e.g., 1915) give the date of the Brindle Mission thus: 16 – , 1786. The latter is the date of the present church, cut in stone above the doorway of the chapel, and very pretentious the date looks. The former figures, 16 -, need some completion. Fortunately, there are plenty of records from which to compile our story.

Venerable Edmund Arrowsmith

Venerable Edmund Arrowsmith

The chief jewel in the crown of the Brindle Mission is the holy martyr Edmund Arrowsmith, who attended to the Catholics in the district for some years, and the story of whose arrest is so graphically given in Dom Bede Camm’s Forgotten Shrines. Father Arrowsmith came to the English Mission in 1613, the year after his ordination, and resided for the most part with relatives of his family at Denham Hall. Mr. Gillow in his Notes on Brindle (Cat. Rec. Soc., vol. 23) mentions that about 1622 Father Arrowsmith was apprehended and brought before Dr. Bridgeman, Bishop of Chester, with whom he had a controversy before being committed to Lancaster Castle. Thence he was released about the time of the negotiations for a marriage between Prince Charles (later Charles II) and a Spanish Princess. Shortly afterwards he joined the Society of Jesus, as he had long desired, making his novitiate on the mission, but spent two or three months in Essex before his profession under the name of Rigby in 1624. From that date he continued to serve the Mission at Brindle and the neighbourhood till his apprehension in 1628. He was arraigned at Lancaster, condemned to death for being a priest, and martyred August 28, 1628, aged forty-three. The martyr’s right hand was secured by the Gerards of Bryn, and to this day is held in great veneration, at Ashton-in-Makerfield.

A spring of very clear water

According to Mr. Gillow, the usual residence of the priest about this time was at St. Helen’s Well, where also was the principal place where Mass was said in the district. The house and well are thus described by Kuerdon, writing about 1675: ‘Over against Swansey House, a little towards the hill, standeth an ancient fabric, once the Manor House of Brindle, where hath been a chappel belonging to the same, and a little above it a spring of very clear water, rushing straight upward into the midst of a fayr fountain, walled square about in stone and flagged in the bottom, very transparent to be seen and a strong stream issuing out of the same. This fountain is called St Ellen’s Well, to which place the vulgar neighbouring people of the Red Letter (Catholics) do much resort with pretended devotion on each year, upon St Ellin’s day (Aug. 18).’

From the Forfeited Estates Papers in the Public Record Office

Mr. Henry Taylor, in his Ancient Crosses and Wells in Lancashire, gives some diagrams of the Well along with his interesting account, in which he says: ‘I could not find the chapel, but some of the stairs in the dilapidated house close by may have formed a portion of such an edifice.’ This was the residence of the Gerards of the Well, and so continued till the early part of the eighteenth century, of whom William married in 1619; Oliver Gerard of the Well was buried in 1664; the will of James Gerard of St Ellen’s Well was proved at Chester in 1665, and that of Alice Gerard of the Well in 1679; besides many later entries in the Brindle parish registers.

This Alice Gerard may justly be considered the foundress of the present Brindle Mission. Previous to her death in 1679, probably about 1677, she gave the site, and built upon it a new chapel and house in Gregson Lane, known as Newhouse. Among the Forfeited Estate Papers in the Public Record Office are several depositions made before the Commissioners in reference to this chapel. ‘George Hinton, of Brindle, Co. Lancaster, swore this 18th July, 1718, saith he hath known Newhouse ever since it was built by Alice Gerard, viz. about forty years ago, that one Green lived there about ten years and died about thirteen years ago, and this deponent did frequently hear the said Green say Mass there, after whose death Mr. Hutchison, a Roman priest, succeeded him, and now usually resides there; That there are about twelve acres of ground belonging to the said house.’ Forty years from 1718, the date of the above deposition, would take us to 1678, which may thus be safely inserted in future Catholic directories as the date of the Brindle Mission.

Similar evidence to that of George Hinton was given by William Hinton, William Turner, Thomas Oram, who mention Mr. Green, Mr. Hutchison, and Mr. Huddlestone as successive priests, and the date at Newhouse of its beginning as forty years previously. Samuel Peploe again, in his account of estates granted to superstitious purposes in and about Preston, Co. Lancs., reported: “Newhouse and grounds belonging to it in Brindle is mostly let in parcels. One Hutchison, a Popish priest, has lived on it some time, who succeeded Mr. Green, a priest, who died there.’

From the above we gather that Mr. Green came to Brindle in 1695. He died in 1704, and was buried at the parish church of Brindle. Mr. Hutchison succeeded, and died at Brindle August 24, 1717. Mr. Huddlestone had charge of the Mission till 1721, when he was succeeded by Dom William Placid Naylor, the most distinguished of the monks in charge of Brindle, who during the last three years he was there was President-General of the English Congregation. His earlier years at Brindle were full of activity. He first acquired a cottage and 3 1/2 acres of land from a family of the name of Coope, and in 1726, with the aid of various benefactions, he obtained possession of Stanfield House with the grounds on which it stood. Mr. George Hull, in his historical sketch of Brindle, mentions that before he built the chapel Father Naylor, like his predecessors, did duty at several Mission stations. One of these was Jack Green, which in 1860 belonged to a Mr. Livesay. When the old house there was pulled down, Father Smith (Brindle, 1829-1874) brought the old chalice and the vestments from the garret to his own house. Another station was at Woodhouse, going towards Clayton Green; another was at Slack, where the Fazackerleys lived; another at Thorpe Green. At these stations the priest celebrated the rites of the Church, and on one Sunday he announced where he would officiate the next; for he could not take them in rotation, because then Catholics had to go to Mass by stealth, and it was dangerous to allow it to be known where services would be held.

It was dangerous to allow it to be known where Mass would take place

Mass was also said at a house, one end of which now faces the entrance to Gregson Lane Mill. This old house has strong claims – even at the risk of a slight digression – to a passing notice here. It is believed to have been erected about 1580, and is a fine example of the comfortable yeoman’s dwelling of that period; an interesting feature of the building being a small room in which the ironwork round the fireplace is hammered into a representation of the wheat and vine, emblematic of the bread and wine used in the Mass. It is said that at the beginning of the eighteenth century this house was the residence of the Gregsons of Gregson Lane, one of whom placed his initials, ‘G. G.,’ with a cross and the date, ‘1700,’ on the lintel of the porch, thus giving later generations the erroneous impression that the building was erected in that year. From it were taken, about 1880, some ancient vestments, which are now in the museum at Stonyhurst College. Near this house, about twenty years ago, was dug up a very ancient font, possibly of the ninth century; and in the garden of a cottage close by stands a beautiful old wayside cross. Local tradition asserts that at this same old house the Venerable Edmund Arrowsmith, the Jesuit martyr, said his last Mass. There are other interesting traditions of his presence in this neighbourhood.

Brindle Presbytery and former chapel, ca. 1923

Brindle Presbytery and former chapel, ca. 1923

He had laboured long in his Mission

Mr. Hull continues his historical sketch: ‘The former priest’s house at Brindle and part of the chapel, Brindle, erected for and by Father Naylor, are still standing. They adjoin the present priest’s house, a portion of which, in its turn, formed part of the second chapel, the present church being really the third building erected for divine worship on this spot.’ As priests could not then hold property, the buildings erected by Father Naylor were conveyed to him in the name of Mr. Woodcock, a Protestant friend, who lived at Walton, and whose successors lived at Bury, where Father Smith saw them, when he arranged for the transfer of the property. Father Naylor, on account of his position as President-General, appears to have been absent from Brindle, on business connected with the Order, from time to time; for it is on record, in the register of the Mission, that he left Brindle for ‘the last time’ on July 16, 1769. He then retired to his Monastery of St. Lawrence at Dieulouard, in Lorraine, and when he got there he told his brethren – to quote Father Smith’s account – ‘that he had laboured long in his Mission and had come to lay his bones in his old monastery. He lived there two years before he went to his rest.’

He had, indeed, laboured hard on the Mission, and most of the time filled important posts in the English Congregation. He was Definitor of the Province in 1733, Definitor of the Regimen 1737, Provincial of York 1741-1766, in which year he became President-General. It was he who built up the Brindle Mission, so that it became the parent of several others in the neighbourhood, and the Catholics of the district owe much to his remarkable foresight and ability.

Many of the judges and magistrates were heartily ashamed 

Not content with labouring hard himself, Father Naylor appears to have done much to induce others to take up the then arduous and perilous work of the priesthood, for there are records of at least three members of his congregation who left Brindle to be educated at the houses belonging to the English Congregation which were then maintained on the Continent. These were the Rev. John Anselm Bolton, who was professed at St Lawrence’s, Dieulouard, in 1751; the Rev. William Dunstan Garstang, professed at St Edmund’s, Paris, in 1753; and the Rev. Ambrose Waring, professed at Dieulouard in 1761. The name of the first of these three – Father Bolton – is connected with what was most probably the last of the trials for high treason to which Catholic priests were liable until the end of the eighteenth century. During the time he was chaplain and incumbent at Gilling Castle, Yorkshire (1764-1793), he was, through the ill-will of a discharged bailiff, accused and tried for his priesthood; or, in other words, simply for having taught the Catholic Catechism to his parishioners. Many of the judges, magistrates, and other authorities of that date were heartily ashamed of the atrocious penal laws which they were called to administer. This seems to have been especially their feeling in the case of Father Bolton, and the learned counsel who appeared for him took full advantage of it.

He procured a catechism, took out its pages, and substituted pages of blank paper. When the proper time came he asked the discharged bailiff who had betrayed Father Bolton if this book, which he held up, was anything like the book from which he had seen Mr. Bolton teach Popery. The ex-bailiff boldly declared that it was ‘the very same book.’ ‘Was he sure?’ ‘Quite sure.’ ‘On his oath?’ ‘Yes.’ Counsel passed the book over to the Judicial Bench, and from there it went to the jury. It was, of course, found to contain not a word of Popery; and the priest was, to the credit of the Court, acquitted. This Father Bolton afterwards had charge of a mission at Ampleforth, in Yorkshire, and from his house, which still stands, grew the noble pile now known as St Lawrence’s Abbey. He died on December 22, 1805, and a fine portrait of him is to be seen at Ampleforth, which has been reproduced by Dom C. Almond in his History of Ampleford Abbey, where he most generously acknowledges the share the good monk from Brindle had in establishing what was to be the successor of his own Alma Mater at Dieulouard.

A succession of remarkable men

Father Naylor’s successor at Brindle was Rev. Joseph Lawrence Hadley, who was there from 1767 to 1802, having acted for two years as Father Naylor’s assistant. Father Hadley built the present spacious and substantial church, which bears the date, as already mentioned, over its main entrance. After serving Brindle for nearly thirty-six years, Father Hadley retired to Liverpool, where he died. He was, in common with other Catholics of that date, interred in the burial-ground of St James Protestant Church, at the top of Parliament Street. At this time the congregation numbered about 600, whilst in 1784 Bishop Mathew B. Gibson confirmed 168 persons at Brindle. About this time the children of the district received such education as could then be afforded them at several small schools. One of them, known as ‘Old Betty Slater’s,’ was at the Straits; another, kept by one ‘Dicky’ Wilson, was at Coupe Green, which is said to have taken its name from the local family already mentioned. On the erection of the present church, the former chapel is believed to have been used as a school.

Immediately after Father Hadley’s retirement in 1802, the Mission was placed under the care of Rev. James Alexius Pope, and of him his successor, Father Smith, said that ‘he believed no mission ever had a more deserving or a better priest than Mr. Pope was.’ But the same words might have been used with equal propriety of Father Smith himself, the truth being that during the long period of 153 years the Brindle Mission was blessed with a succession of remarkable men, the four of them sharing between them the century and a half. Father Smith’s great desire was, if he knew a boy who was promising for the Church, to get him to college and ultimately admitted to Holy Orders. In this he was singularly successful. Among those whom he was instrumental in getting thus trained were Rev. J. C. Proctor, O.S.B.; V. R. Canon Carter, afterwards of Bolton; Rev. M. G. Brierley, O.S.B.; V. R. Canon Baron, afterwards of Corby, Lincolnshire; Rev. Will. Baron; V. R. Canon Walmesley; Rev. William Crook; Rev. Edmund Crook; Rev. Henry Ryley; Rev. James Thompson; Rev. Thos. Parkinson; Rev. J. A. Worden, O.S.B. There was one embargo that Father Smith always put upon the priests who owed their training to his efforts, and that was that in the Holy Sacrifice they should never forget the congregation of Brindle. The good Father died at his post on January 29, 1874, and was interred in the graveyard adjoining the church. In the early days of his incumbency a former Brindle boy, who had risen to a position of affluence by his industry and integrity, built the schools which have now done duty for three generations, and on which the following inscription may still be read: ‘Erected by Mr. Joseph Knight, of Chelsea, for the benefit of the Brindle congregation, and as a token of respect for his native place, A. D. 1831.’

…in times of prosperity as in times of suffering and persecution

The Brindle Mission is the ‘mother’ of Brownedge, Walton, Clayton Green, and Leyland. ‘It is,’ says Mr. Hewitson, in his Country Churches and Chapels, to which we would refer the reader for further ‘racy’ details, ‘an elevated pastoral district, with a peaceable, widely-spread population, and has some of the most puzzling roads in the Western hemisphere. We have managed a few roads in our time, but in all our wanderings we have met with none more mixed up or perplexing then those in the arcadian region of Brindle. It is indeed an old-world spot, the chapel snugly hid away in a deep dell and not seen until one is within fifty yards of it. But it was placed there in times of persecution; and all the surroundings have the same air of peaceful retirement so greatly favoured by our Catholic forefathers.’ But the days of retirement are past, and we may justly hope that Brindle and Hoghton will remember their former glories and be an example to Catholic Lancashire in times of prosperity, even as they were in times of suffering and persecution.”

– Dom F. O. Blundell, O.S.B., Old Catholic Lancashire, Burns Oates & Washbourne Ltd., London 1925

 

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THE SALVATION HISTORY OF ALL MEN AS REVEALED IN THE BIBLE: THE RANSOM FOR MANY

The Gospel according to Mark, chapter 10

WHAT MOTIVE COULD EXPLAIN THIS SEEMINGLY FOOLISH RESOLVE?

“Caiphas and the enemies of Jesus had resolved to put Jesus to death. The feast of the Pasch was approaching, and Jesus expected to attend the feast at Jerusalem. To avoid the plot of Caiphas, after restoring life to Lazarus at Bethany, Jesus withdrew to Ephraim, a village twenty miles north of Jerusalem. He remained there until it was time to start the journey to Jerusalem for the Pasch.

When Jesus started on the road to Jerusalem the Apostles were both puzzled and frightened. They knew of the enmity of Caiphas for Jesus; they had taken the sojourn of Jesus at Ephraim to mean that Jesus was seeking to avoid the traps of Caiphas. Now Jesus seemed determined to walk into the clutches of His enemies. What motive could explain this seemingly foolish resolve?

Jesus, knowing their fears, said to them, ‘Behold, we are going to Jerusalem, and the Son of Man will be betrayed to the chief priests and the Scribes; and they will condemn him to death and will deliver him to the Gentiles; and they will mock him, and spit upon him, and scourge him, and put him to death; and on the third day he will rise again’ (Mark 10:33-34).

THE APOSTLES SEEMED TO HOPE IN A GLORIOUS MESSIAS

Jesus knew that His time had come, the time appointed by His Father for Him to die. He foretold it to His Apostles and disciples. He also told them that He would come back to life again on the third day after His death. Both of these predictions were mystifying to the Apostles. They understood neither of them. Their minds were so filled with visions of Jesus as a glorious, triumphant Messias, that they could not perceive any significance in the picture of a suffering, defeated Messias, even if He were to rise again.

‘YOU DO NOT KNOW WHAT YOU ARE ASKING FOR’

That the minds of the Apostles were blinded by their own hopes for a glorious Messias is shown by the incident which immediately followed the prediction of the death of Jesus. The mother of the two sons of Zebedee, John and James, came to Jesus and asked Him, ‘Command that these, my two sons may sit, one at Thy right hand, and one at Thy left hand, in Thy kingdom.’ Jesus, addressing John and James, said, ‘You do not know what you are asking for. Can you drink of the cup of which I drink, or be baptised with the baptism with which I am to be baptised?’ Believing that Jesus would lead them to a glorious triumph, the sons of Zebedee answered, ‘We can’ (Mark 10: 35-40; Matthew 20:23).

Jesus knew that they misunderstood Him. They had not seen that Jesus was to enter His own glory only after passing through death. Hence He asked them if they were ready to drink of the chalice which He Himself had to drink, that is, the cup of misfortune and death. Even though they did not understand, their loyalty to Jesus remained firm and they answered that they were ready to drink the same cup. Jesus then told them, ‘Of my cup you shall indeed drink; but as for sitting at my right hand and at my left, that is not mine to give you, but it belongs to those for whom it has been prepared by my Father’ (Matthew 20:23).

The other Apostles who had followed the conversation became indignant at the ambition of the two brothers. Jesus took the occasion to enlighten all the Apostles on the true nature of His mission. ‘You know,’ He said to them, ‘that the rulers of the Gentiles lord over them, and their great men exercise authority over them. Not so is it among you. On the contrary, whoever wishes to become great among you shall be your servant; and whoever wishes to be first among you shall be your slave; even as the Son of Man has not come to be served but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many’ (Matthew 20:25-28).

THE PRICE TO BE PAID TO GOD FOR THE RESTORATION OF DIVINE LIFE TO MEN, THE SALVATION OF MEN

In these words Jesus gently rebuked all the Apostles for their worldly dreams of power. If they were to be His faithful disciples, they must not seek to lord it over their fellowmen, but rather to serve them. Jesus Himself has not come into this world to rule an earthly kingdom, but rather to serve mankind. In fact, He is to give up His life as a ransom for all men. Jesus had already predicted His death three times, the last time just before the ambitious request of the sons of Zebedee. Now, for the first time, He says clearly that His suffering and death will be offered as a ransom for men. He had already hinted at this aspect of His death when He compared Himself to a Good Shepherd and said that the Good Shepherd lays down His life for His sheep. A ransom is the price paid to liberate someone, and the Good Shepherd lays down His life to save the lives of His sheep. Jesus, therefore, is saying that His life is the price which will be paid for the salvation of men. It is the price to be paid to God for the restoration of divine life to men, the salvation of men, the establishment of the Kingdom of God among men.

‘LORD, SON OF DAVID, HAVE MERCY ON US’

The Apostles probably did not understand the words of Jesus, but they followed Him on His way to Jerusalem. As they drew near to Jericho, they were met by two blind men. When the blind men heard that it was Jesus of Nazareth who was passing by, they cried out, ‘Lord, Son of David, have mercy on us.’ Though some would have prevented them from disturbing Jesus, He commanded that they be brought to Him. He asked them what they wished of Him. When they asked Him to restore their sight, Jesus, moved by compassion, touched their eyes, and immediately their sight was given to them.

Shortly afterwards, as they were passing through Jericho, a great crowd filled the street to see Jesus. One of the townspeople, a certain Zacchaeus, a rich publican, climbed a sycamore tree to be able to see Jesus. Now publicans, tax gatherers, were regarded by the people as sinners, as extortioners. It was therefore surprising to the crowd when Jesus, seeing Zacchaeus in the tree, called to him, ‘Zacchaeus, make haste and come down; for I must stay in thy house today’ (Luke 19:5). Zacchaeus, sinner that he was, was overjoyed at the thought that the Wonderworker, Jesus of Nazareth, condescended to accept the hospitality of his house. But some of the people, probably those opposed to Jesus, murmured that Jesus did not hesitate to be the guest of a sinner. This gesture of Jesus, however, moved Zacchaeus to repentance, and he said, ‘Behold, Lord, I give one half of my possessions to the poor, and if I have defrauded anyone of anything, I restore it fourfold’ (Luke 19:8).

THE PARABLE OF THE TALENTS

Tax gatherers, publicans, worked for the Roman authorities, gathering taxes for them. For that reason, they appeared to the people as traitors of Israel. The gesture of Zacchaeus in returning the monies he had gained by his trade showed his sincere repentance. Jesus recognised this and said, ‘Today salvation has come to this house since he, too, is a son of Abraham. For the Son of Man came to seek and save what was lost’ (Luke 19:9-10).

In these last words Jesus repeats the lesson He had already given His Apostles. He has come, not to establish an earthly kingdom but to save the souls of sinners. He will give His life for the salvation of men.

Either during or after the meal in the house of Zacchaeus, Jesus told the parable of the talents or the gold pieces. The people were looking on Jesus as a political Messias, who would restore the kingdom of Israel. Jesus knew that their hopes would be disappointed when He died an ignominious death at Jerusalem. He tried, in this parable, to correct their false hopes and lead them to a better hope.

A nobleman, He told them, went to a far country to obtain a kingdom for himself. This would probably recall to the people the history of Herod, who went to Rome to obtain from the Romans the title of King of Judea. The nobleman, before leaving, sent for his servants and gave each of them some gold pieces which they were to use to gain profit for their master. But his enemies sent a delegation after him that they did not desire him to be their king. On his return as king he sent for his servants and demanded an accounting of the gold pieces. One servant had gained ten gold pieces, another five. He rewarded them by giving them positions of power and influence. But one of the servants had been afraid to hazard the piece given him, and so he returned only this piece, without any interest whatsoever. The king took even this piece away from him because he had been a useless servant. The citizens who had opposed him he put to death.

THE MEANING

In this parable Jesus was trying to describe the relations between Himself and His own people. He was the Messias, seeking to establish His own kingdom in the world. But he was to do so only by dying, by leaving His people for a time. In His absence His enemies will work to keep His kingdom from Him. But He gives His Apostles and disciples gold pieces, the means of building up His kingdom for Him. They must work for Him, even in His absence, to build up His kingdom. Even though He Himself is absent from them, they must persevere in His interests with hope and courage.

THE OINTMENT OF GREAT VALUE

After this warning Jesus continued on His journey to Jerusalem. Six days before the Pasch Jesus arrived in Bethany. Here He met Simon the Leper, Lazarus and his sisters Martha and Mary. While they were reclining at table, Mary took a pound of ointment, spikenard, an ointment of great value. She anointed the head of Jesus with the spikenard, and then, since there was some left over, she anointed His feet also. Judas Iscariot, one of the Apostles, the treasurer of the band of Apostles, objected to this waste. The ointment, he claimed, could have been sold for three hundred denarii and the money given to the poor.

St John tells us that Judas said this, not because he had any great love for the poor but rather because he was avaricious and sought money for himself. It is possible that Judas, of all the Apostles, was the most interested in the establishment by Jesus of an earthly kingdom, a kingdom in which Judas himself would become rich and powerful. He may, at this time, have become discouraged at the refusal of Jesus to seek to establish such a kingdom. In such case the journey of Jesus to Jerusalem, the stronghold of His enemies, would have seemed to Judas to be madness, and so he was already prepared to betray the ‘madman’ who disappointed his hopes.”

– Martin J. Healy S.T.D., 1959

 

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THE SALVATION HISTORY OF ALL MEN AS REVEALED IN THE BIBLE: THE LORD OF LIFE

THE TEN LEPERS

“While Jesus was on the way to Jerusalem, He entered a certain village and ten lepers called out to Him, ‘Jesus, master, have pity on us’ (Luke 17:13). Jesus told them to go and show themselves to the priests. While they were on their way to the priests, they were cured of their leprosy. Only one of them was grateful enough to return to Jesus to thank Him, and this one was a Samaritan.

WHEN IS THE KINGDOM OF GOD COMING?

As He was on His way to Jerusalem, the Pharisees came once again to try Him. They asked Him, ‘When is the kingdom of God coming?’ (Luke 17:20). Since Jesus had been preaching the arrival of the kingdom for some time, it is clear that the Pharisees were expecting something more striking than Jesus had already manifested. His works, His miracles were not apparently enough for them. No doubt they were expecting some great cosmic phenomena to manifest the tremendous power of God, or perhaps some great divine sign against the Romans, their oppressors.

SOME GREAT COSMIC PHENOMENA?

Jesus, knowing their desire for some external manifestation of divine power against the Romans, said to them, ‘The kingdom of God comes unawares. Neither will they say, ‘Behold, here it is,’ or ‘Behold, there it is.’ For behold, the kingdom of God is within you’ (Luke 17: 20-21). The meaning of Jesus is clear. The Pharisees were expecting the kingdom to begin with the liberation of the Jews from the domination of the Romans. This would demand some triumphant victory of the Jews over the Romans. The power of God would be manifested on the side of His Chosen People. The might of God would cast down into the dust the might of the greatest empire the world had ever known. But Jesus had not come to establish a world empire. So He told the Pharisees that the Kingdom of God had already come; it had come without the pomp and eclat of an earthly kingdom. It had already come; it was being established in their midst. But it had come quietly, for it was not to be a great political kingdom; it was meant to rule the hearts and souls of men, and it had already begun in the hearts of those who had given their allegiance to Jesus.

HE WOULD COME AGAIN SUDDENLY, IN POWER AND IN GLORY

This thought of the modest beginnings of His kingdom gave way in the mind of Jesus to the thought of His final coming at the end of the world to judge all men. “The days will come,’ He said, ‘when you will long to see one day of the Son of Man, and will not see it. And they will say to you, ‘Behold, here he is; behold, there he is.’ Do not go, nor follow after them. For as the lightning when it lightens flashes from one end of the sky to the other, so will the Son of Man be in his day. But first he must suffer many things and be rejected by this generation’ (Luke 17:22-25).

These words Jesus addressed to His own disciples. He had come to men now in humility, but He would come again at the end of the world; He would come suddenly, in power and glory. Though men would be watching for His coming and pretending to find Him, He would come unexpectedly, swiftly, at a moment when they did not expect Him.

MANY WILL BE UNPREPARED FOR HIS SECOND COMING

The heart of Jesus is not entirely joyful at the thought of His triumph at the end of the world. He warns His disciples that many will be unprepared for His coming and will be lost. Just as no one heeded the warnings of Noe [Noah]; just as people went on wining and dining and sinning right up to the moment of the flood which destroyed them, so also will men be up to the moment when Jesus comes to judge them. At the end, then, many will still be forgetful of the Kingdom of God and so will be lost.

PERSISTING IN PRAYER TO GOD

Jesus then tells a parable to encourage His disciples to remain steadfast in their allegiance to Him and to His kingdom. A poor widow sought justice from an unjust judge. For a while he refused to render a verdict in her favour. But she persisted in coming to him. Finally, worn out by her pleas, the judge gave her a favourable verdict. The widow’s persistence had finally won justice. So also the disciples of Jesus must persist in prayer to God. If they do, their faith will triumph in the end. Then the eyes of Jesus turn once again to the end of the world and He remarks sadly, ‘Yet when the Son of Man comes, will he find, do you think, faith on the earth?’ (Luke 18:8). Jesus knows that not all men will become His faithful disciples, not all men will enter His kingdom. And perhaps at the end His followers will be only a few among the many.

LORD, HAVE MERCY ON ME, A SINNER

On this same journey Jesus told also the parable of the Pharisee and the publican. Both went into the Temple to pray. The Pharisee took pride in his own virtue and, in his prayer, called God’s attention to the fact that he was not like other men a sinner. The publican, on the other hand, stood afar off, struck his breast in repentance and asked God to be merciful to a sinner. Jesus then pointed out that the humility of the publican was more pleasing to God than the pride and complacency of the Pharisee.

WHAT GOD HAS JOINED TOGETHER, LET NO MAN PUT ASUNDER

It was during this same journey to Jerusalem that Jesus gave His position on the questions of separation of spouses and divorce. The Pharisees asked Him directly if it were ever lawful for a man to separate from his wife. First of all Jesus laid down the law of the indissolubility of the marriage bond: ‘What God has joined together, let no man put asunder’ (Matthew 19:6). When the Pharisees objected that Moses had allowed the separation and divorce of spouses, Jesus replied that while it might be allowed to separate from a wife who was unfaithful, this separation did not dissolve the marriage bond, and neither the man nor the wife were allowed to remarry while the other spouse was alive. ‘Whosoever puts away his wife, except for immorality, and marries another, commits adultery’ (Matthew 19:9).

DON’T HINDER LITTLE CHILDREN TO COME TO ME

On another occasion the people were bringing their children to Jesus so that He might touch them. The disciples, probably afraid that Jesus might be wearied by this, sought to prevent the parents from so acting. But Jesus said, ‘Let the little children come to me, and do not hinder them, for of such is the kingdom of God. Amen I say to you, whoever does not accept the kingdom of God as a little child will not enter into it’ (Luke 18:16-17). Men must not approach the Kingdom of God filled with pride in themselves, but rather as little children, innocent and humble, seeking only to receive the riches of eternal life.

THE RICH YOUNG MAN

Soon after, a rich young man, attracted to Jesus, came to Him and asked, ‘Good Master, what shall I do to gain eternal life?’ Jesus told him that he must keep the commandments of God. The young man replied that he had done this all his life. Perceiving his good will, Jesus then said, ‘One thing is still lacking to thee; sell all that thou hast, and give it to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven, and come, follow me’ (Luke 28:22). Jesus was giving this young man the chance to practise heroic virtue. He was even offering him the chance to become a favoured disciple. But the young man could not find it in his heart to part with his possessions, and so he left Jesus.

IT IS EASIER FOR A CAMEL TO PASS THROUGH THE EYE OF A NEEDLE…

This young man’s attachment to his wealth led Jesus to remark how difficult it was for the rich to love God wholeheartedly. ‘With what difficulty will they who have riches enter the kingdom of God! For it is easier for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God’ (Luke 18:24-25). The disciples were astonished at His words. ‘Who then can be saved?’ the asked. But Jesus told them that God could save even the rich: ‘Things that are impossible with men are possible with God’ (Luke 18:27).

MANY WHO ARE FIRST NOW WILL BE LAST

This led Peter to say hopefully, ‘Behold, we have left all and followed thee’ (Luke 18:28). Jesus rewarded his hope. ‘Amen I say to you, there is no one who has left house, or brothers, or sisters, or mother, or father, or children, or lands, for my sake and for the gospel’s sake, who shall not receive now in the present time a hundredfold as much, houses, and brothers, and sisters, and mothers, and children, and lands – along with persecutions, and in the age to come life everlasting. But many who are first now will be last, and many who are last now will be first’ (Mark 10:29-31).

Jesus promised that those who loved Him would be taken care of in this world and, even more, they would receive life everlasting. But they would also be despised in this world and suffer persecution. But, at the end, those who had persecuted them and looked down upon them would be last, and the followers of Jesus would take the first places.

THE PARABLE OF THE LABOURERS IN THE VINEYARD

Then, and perhaps to emphasise the gratuitousness of God’s gifts to men, Jesus told the parable of the labourers in the vineyard. The owner of a vineyard hires labourers at the beginning of the day to work in his vineyard. Then about nine o’clock, again at noon and three, and just before evening he hired others to work also. He agreed to pay all a penny for their work. When the day was over he paid all the penny agreed upon. But those who had come early complained that they did not receive more than those who had come late. The owner of the vineyard told them that he had treated all with justice, for he had given all the sum agreed upon. If he chose to give the same sum to those who had worked less, that was due, not to injustice, but to his generosity. ‘Have I not a right to do what I choose?’ he asks. ‘Or art thou envious because I am generous?’ (Matthew 20:15)

God is not unjust to anyone, Jesus was saying. But His mercy to men was a free gift on His part. And in the mystery of His mercy He might give life everlasting even to those who had turned to Him only at the end of their lives. This should not cause those who had laboured long for life everlasting to complain. In fact, their complaints might show that they were less worthy of the divine mercy themselves. Hence Jesus concludes, ‘Even so the last shall be first, and the first last; for many are called, but few are chosen’ (Matthew 20:16).

THROUGH IT THE SON OF MAN MAY BE GLORIFIED

When Jesus was about a day’s journey from the village of Bethany, word was brought to Him from Mary and Martha in Bethany that their brother Lazarus, a friend of Jesus, was sick. Jesus loved Lazarus. But He did not hasten to Bethany to take care of him. ‘This sickness,’ He said, ‘is not unto death, but for the glory of God, that through it the Son of God may be glorified’ (John 11:4). Jesus waited two days and then said to His disciples, ‘Let us go again into Judea’ (John 11:7).

TOO DANGEROUS TO GO?

The disciples objected to His going because opposition to Him was strong in Judea. But Jesus, knowing that His hour was not yet come, insisted on going to aid Lazarus. ‘Lazarus, our friend, sleeps,’ He said, ‘but I go that I may wake him from sleep’ (John 11:11). Taking His words literally the disciples said, ‘Lord, if he sleeps, he will be safe’ (John 11:12). Jesus then informed them that Lazarus was, in fact, dead. Thomas, the Apostle, seeing that Jesus was determined to go, said to the others, ‘Let us also go, that we may die with him.’ At this moment Thomas was ready to die with Jesus at the hands of the enemies of Jesus.

LAZARUS HAD ALREADY BEEN BURIED FOR FOUR DAYS

When Jesus arrived at Bethany Lazarus had already been buried for four days. Martha, on hearing of His coming, went to meet Him. ‘Lord,’ she said to Him, ‘if thou hadst been here my brother would not have died. But even now I know that whatever thou shalt ask of God, God will give it to thee’ (John 11:21-22). Jesus said to her, ‘Thy brother shall rise.’ Martha replied, ‘I know that he will rise at the resurrection, on the last day.’ Then Jesus said, ‘I am the resurrection and the life; he who believes in me, even if he die, shall live; and whoever lives and believes in me, shall never die. Dost thou believe this?’ And Martha said to Him, ‘Yes, Lord, I believe that thou art the Christ, the Son of God, who hast come into the world (John 11:23-27).

Then Martha went to summon Mary. Some of the village dwellers followed Martha and Mary out to Jesus. Martha and Mary took Jesus to the tomb where Lazarus was buried. Some of the villagers murmured, ‘Could not he who opened the eyes of the blind, have caused that this man should not die?’ (John 11:37).

LAZARUS, COME FORTH!

At the tomb Jesus said, ‘Take away the stone.’ Martha, fearing the odour of the decaying body, said, ‘Lord, by this time he is already decayed, for he is dead four days.’ Jesus said, ‘Have I not told thee that if thou believe thou shalt behold the glory of God?’ The stone was then removed from the mouth of the tomb. Jesus raised His eyes to heaven and said, ‘Father, I give thee thanks that thou always hearest me; but because of the people who stand round, I spoke, that they may believe that thou hast sent me.’ After saying this, He cried out in a loud voice, ‘Lazarus, come forth!’ And at once Lazarus, who had been dead, came out of the tomb, still bound hands and feet in the burial bandages. Jesus commanded the bystanders to remove the bindings.

BY HIS APPREARANCE THERE HE WAS COURTING DESTRUCTION

The resurrection of Lazarus is one of the greatest of the miracles worked by Jesus. It is the third resurrection brought about by the power of Jesus. He had already restored life to the son of the widow at Naim and to the daughter of Jairus. In all three of these miracles Jesus had showed Himself to be the Lord of life. He proved the truth of His words, ‘I am the resurrection and the life.’ But, in the story of the resurrection, as told by John, there seems to be apparent an atmosphere of greater urgency and appeal than in the other miracles of Jesus. Jesus, against the urgings of His disciples, has come into Judea, the stronghold of His enemies. By His appearance there He was courting destruction. Yet He had insisted upon coming. It is as if He knew that His time was short, drawing rapidly to a close. He would, therefore, work a great miracle, right in the midst of those who were refusing to accept Him. It would be a strong appeal for their acceptance, one more effort to gain their good will.

That Jesus meant this miracle to be one of great importance in His mission is shown by His behaviour. He refuses to go at once to the aid of Lazarus because He knows that God wishes to manifest His glory through the resurrection of Lazarus. He realises that He Himself will be glorified by this miracle. He waits until Lazarus has been dead for some days before He goes to Bethany. Before working the miracle He demands from the sisters of Lazarus a confession of faith in Himself. And Martha acknowledges Him as the Messias, in fact, as the Son of God. Again, before working the miracle, Jesus says that it will happen, it will come to pass through the power of God so that men may believe that He has been sent by God, has come from God. And, lest there be any doubt about the reality of the resurrection, He commands that some of the bystanders unbind the risen Lazarus. He wished all to be convinced of the fact that He was the Lord of life, the giver of life.

JESUS HAD ASKED MEN TO ACCEPT HIM AS THE GIVER OF LIFE

Jesus had come into the world to give men eternal life, eternal life in the Kingdom of God. This was God’s greatest boon to mankind. He had asked men to accept Him as the giver of this life, the Anointed One of God, the Messias for whom they were waiting. He had worked miracles to prove His claim, to gain their faith. Some had followed Him. But many had rejected Him, and among these were the leaders of the people, the priests, the Scribes and the Pharisees. Now, in the resurrection of Lazarus, He would give them an unmistakable proof of His power and of His identity. By raising Lazarus back to life, Jesus showed Himself clearly to be the Messias, to be even more, the very Son of God, the Lord of life. By restoring to Lazarus the life of His body, Jesus showed Himself to be the Lord of eternal life. Those who accepted Him as such, would live forever in the Kingdom of God, and on the last day they would rise even in the body.

THEY RESOLVED TO PUT JESUS TO DEATH

That the resurrection of Lazarus was a decisive moment in the earthly life of Jesus is shown by its effects. Some of those who witnessed it believed in Him. But others, still opposed to Him, went to the Pharisees and reported His success to them. The priests and the Pharisees, instead of being convinced of His claims, called a council to decide what to do about Him. They refused to accept Him as the Messias, and so they could see in Him only a threat to their own power and position. They forgot that Jesus was not interested in an earthly kingdom. They feared that He might lead a rebellion against the Romans and so bring down on them the wrath of the Romans. Caiphas, the high priest that year, remarked cynically, ‘it is expedient for us that one man die for the people, instead of the whole nation perishing’ (John 11:50). The council of the Jews thereupon resolved to put Jesus to death.

GOD WAS USING HIS PLANS TO BRING ABOUT THE TRIUMPH OF JESUS

Although Caiphas was seeking his own ends in this decision, his words, in God’s sight, had a prophetic import. Caiphas was saying that it was better to put Jesus to death before a rebellion against the Romans broke out, so that the nation, and especially its ruling classes, should not suffer. But, as St John remarks, Caiphas was an unwitting prophet in the hands of God, for Jesus was to die not only to save His own nation but so that He might gather into one all the children of God throughout the world (John 11:51-52). Caiphas thought that he was planning the death of Jesus, but God was using his plans to bring about the triumph of Jesus.”

– Martin J. Healy S.T.D., 1959

 

 

 

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THE SALVATION HISTORY OF ALL MEN AS REVEALED IN THE BIBLE: OUR GOD OF MERCY

“JESUS SAID: ‘I AND THE FATHER ARE ONE.'(John 10:30)

About … the month of December, Jesus went to Jerusalem for the celebration of the Feast of the Dedication. While teaching in Solomon’s porch at the Temple, He was asked, ‘How long doest thou keep us in suspense? If thou art the Christ, tell us openly’ (John 10:24). Jesus answered, ‘I tell you and you do not believe. The works that I do in the name of my Father, these bear witness concerning me. But you do not believe because you are not of my sheep. My sheep hear my voice, and I know them and they follow me. And I give them everlasting life, and they shall never perish, neither shall anyone snatch them out of my hand. What my Father has given me is greater than all; and no one is able to snatch anything out of the hand of my Father. I and the Father are one’ (John 10:25-30).

JESUS DID NOT SAY SIMPLY: ‘I AM THE MESSIAH.’

Jesus does no reply simply, ‘I am the Messias for whom you have been waiting.’ Instead He appeals to His works, that is, His miracles. These are a divine testimony to Himself; they reveal His identity; in them God the Father manifests His Son. But the Jews have not been willing to accept Jesus as their Christ and hence theu have not perceived the inner meaning of His works or His words. Still, as Jesus tells them, the Father has given some the power to believe in Jesus. These are His sheep; they hear His voice and follow Him, and He gives them everlasting life. Nor will anyone be able to take this everlasting life away from them, for the will and the power of God the Father will keep them safe. The same power belongs also to Jesus Himself, for He and the Father are one.

JESUS WAS SPEAKING IN TERMS OF THE HOLY TRINITY

The Jews who were listening to Jesus may not have understood all He said, but this last statement aroused them. While Jesus was distinguishing Himself from His Father, as two distinct Persons, nevertheless He was also claiming unity with the Father as God. While it was probably not clear to the Jews that Jesus was speaking in terms of the doctrine now known as the doctrine of the Trinity, they still saw enough of His meaning to realise that He was claiming an equality with God.

Now the one thing which the Jews had finally learned through their long experience of dealing with Jahweh was the unity or oneness of God. It was also clear to them that Jesus was a Man. They were familiar, too, with the pagan tendency to make men gods. The latter notion, with its overtones of Polytheism and idolatry, was abhorrent to them. They understood Jesus in this sense and took up stones to put Him to death for blasphemy.

THEY WANTED TO PUT JESUS TO DEATH FOR BLASPHEMY

To soften their wrath Jesus tried to lead them more gently to an understanding and acceptance of His claim. He pointed out to them that the Israelites had been called ‘gods’ in their own Sacred Books. This was because by their covenant with Jahweh they had become the ‘sons of God.’ Now His thought continues, if they, who are quite ordinary men, men who have never performed the works which Jesus has performed, can with justice be called the ‘sons of God,’ why should they object because Jesus, who performs divine works, calls Himself the ‘Son of God’? This might have seemed to them as if Jesus were watering down His previous claim to equality with God. But when He added, ‘the Father is in me and I in the Father,’ then they realised that He was still making the same claim. They determined to seize Him and, perhaps, deliver Him over to the magistrates on the charge of blasphemy. But Jesus escaped from them.

THEY WERE EXPECTING A POLITICAL MESSIAH

Thus, once again, the people were given the chance to accept Jesus as the Christ, but they would not. Why did not Jesus reveal Himself to them as clearly as He had already done to His own disciples? Many explanations are possible, and all are perhaps, in their way, true. The people were awaiting the Messias, but they were expecting a political Messias who would lead them to glory against their political enemies. They had not as yet, in any large numbers, heeded the call of Jesus to personal repentance for sin; they had not perceived the spirituality of the kingdom which He had come to establish. If He had said simply that He was the Messias, they might have tried to rise in rebellion against the Roman authorities, trusting in the power of Jesus to lead them to victory. But Jesus, with no intention of leading such a rebellion, refused to give the occasion for such a foolhardy attempt.

JESUS REFUSED TO FOSTER THIS SPIRIT OF WORLDLINESS

Besides, as this incident shows, Jesus was claiming to be not only the Messias but something much higher, something even more mysterious and harder to accept. He was the Messias, but He was also God; distinct from God the Father as His Son, but one with Him in the unity of the Godhead. Jesus wished to be accepted not simply as the Messias but also as God Himself.

If He had acknowledged simply that He was the Messias, perhaps the people, filled with their worldly dreams of political freedom and domination, might have seen in Him no more than a great political and military leader. Jesus refused to foster this spirit of worldliness. Instead He reminded them that He has come to give men, not temporal prosperity but everlasting life, the life which only God could give them. That it was difficult for the Jews to accept His teaching cannot be denied. But the way was open to them. They had seen or heard of the miraculous works of Jesus. These were a divine testimony to the truth of His teachings, of His claims. If they would believe in Him because of His works, then they would lay hold on everlasting life.

MORE THAN JUST A GREAT POLITICAL AND MILITARY LEADER

After this incident Jesus left Jerusalem and went into Perea. One day, while He was teaching the people, someone asked Him, ‘Lord, are only a few to be saved?’ (Luke 13:23).

Jesus replied, ‘Enter by the narrow gate. For wide is the gate and broad is the way that leads to destruction, and many there are who enter that way. How narrow the gate and close the way that leads to life! And few there are who find it’ (Matthew 7:13-14). The answer of Jesus is figurative. But this much seems evident. Since salvation, or eternal life with God, is the goal of human life, men must find salvation by seeking God instead of the many opportunities for pleasure and happiness in this world. They must enter the narrow road of using the world, not for themselves alone but to find God. This involves the renunciation of the world or detachment from the world for the sake of God.

THE NARROW GATE

But the world and the pleasures of the world are like a wide gate and a wide road; their very wideness and apparent spaciousness are appealing. Many men, misled by their broad and gracious vistas, will set out on the road of the world and will mistake this world for God, their true goal. Many therefore will follow the wide path to destruction, and only a few will follow the narrow road to eternal life.

SALVATION, ETERNAL LIFE WITH GOD, IS THE GOAL OF HUMAN LIFE

Jesus goes on to speak more particularly of the salvation of the Jews and the Gentiles of the world. The kingdom of heaven is like a house. After a certain number of guests have entered, the master of the house closes the doors. Then others come and demand admittance. But the householder refuses to let them enter. They appeal to him, saying that they have eaten with Him in the past, listened to His teachibg, prophesied in His name, even cast out devils in His name. But the householder replies, ‘I do not know where you are from. Depart from me all you workers of iniquity’ (Luke 13:27). Through the door (or perhaps a window) those outside can see Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and a great company of peoples from the East and the West, from all the nations of the earth, feasting with the householder.

PEOPLE OF ALL NATIONS ARE ADMITTED INTO THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN

In these words Jesus repeats something He has said before. The Jews, the Chosen People of God, the people among whom Jesus Himself has lived and with whom He has broken bread, will reject Jesus and be cast out of the kingdom of their ancestors, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. But the other nations of the world will accept Jesus and be accepted into the kingdom of heaven.

DISTURBANCES BY JESUS’ PREACHING?

The Pharisaical opposition to Jesus may not have been so bitter or so strong in Perea as it was in Judea and Galilee. Herod, the ruler of Galilee, heard that Jesus was in Perea, which he also ruled. Fearful that Jesus might, by His preaching there, cause disturbances among the people, and moved perhaps by his superstitious fear that Jesus might be John the Baptist returned to life, Herod determined to put Jesus to death. Some of the Pharisees learning of this came to Jesus and told Him to depart from the land so as to escape the designs of Herod. Or, if their opposition to Jesus was as strong as it was elsewhere, it might be that Herod used them to induce Jesus to leave Perea. At any rate, Jesus, knowing that His mission would come to an end at the moment willed by God, refused to go. ‘Go and say to that fox,’ He said, ‘Behold, I cast out devils and perform cures today and tomorrow and the third day I am to end my course. Nevertheless, I must go my way today and tomorrow and the next day, for it cannot be that a prophet perish outside Jerusalem’ (Luke 13:32-33).

Jesus, then, would continue to teach and work miracles in Perea until it was time to go to Jerusalem to give His life for the fulfilment of God’s plan.

PRACTICAL LESSONS ON THE NEED OF HUMILITY AND SELFLESS LOVE

While in Perea the old difficulty with the Pharisees recurred again. One Sabbath day Jesus was dining in the house of one of the Pharisees. A man came who had dropsy. Jesus asked the Pharisees if it were lawful to cure on the Sabbath. When they refused to answer, Jesus cured the man, and then reminded them that even they would go to aid an ass or an ox which might fall into a pit on the Sabbath.

Jesus then proceeded to give practical lessons on the need of humility and selfless love. He had observed how the guests in the house had each striven to sit as near the host as possible, so as to gain greater honour for themselves. He pointed out to them that it was better to seek a place lower down, in fact, the last place. Then they would not be embarrassed if the host were to ask them to give way to some guest more distinguished than themselves. On the other hand if they took the last place, then perhaps the host, recognising their real merits, might ask them to go up higher. In this way Jesus intimated to the Pharisees, who prided themselves on their favour in the sight of God, that God would be more pleased with them if they had a humbler estimate of their own virtues and faithfulness to God.

UNCONDITIONAL LOVE

He was conscious that the Pharisees, because they felt themselves to be loyal and generous to God, expected great rewards from God. Their love of God was not an unselfish love. They loved God because they wished rewards from Him. Jesus attacked this selfishness by telling another parable. When you give a dinner, He said, do not invite only your friends and relatives and the rich of the neighbourhood. When you do only this, then they, because they are rich, will return the invitation and so you will be rewarded. But rather invite those who can give you no return, the poor and the afflicted. Then you will receive a reward at the resurrection of the just.

GOD ACCOMPLISHES HIS PLANS IN HIS OWN WAY

This led one of the guests to say, ‘Blessed is he who shall feast in the kingdom of God’ (Luke 14:15).

The mention of the Kingdom of God induced Jesus to remind the Pharisees again that they were in danger of being excluded from God’s kingdom. The Pharisees, because they were zealous in the fulfilment of the Law of Moses, were certain that they, above all others, would sit in the Kingdom of God. But they were, as a class, refusing to recognise God’s Anointed One, Jesus. This refusal, if they persisted in it, would lose for them the glory which they expected.

Jesus tells them the parable of the great man who gave a great feast and invited many. But those invited refused to attend. Each one found some worldly excuse for his refusal. The host then sent his servant to bring to the feast the poor, the crippled, the blind and the lame, even the poor of the countryside, until all the places at the table were filled. ‘For I tell you,’ he said, ‘that none of those who were invited shall taste my supper’ (Luke 14:24).

The Pharisees expected to sit down in the final Kingdom of God. In this parable Jesus was warning them that their preoccupation with the things of this present life would lead them to refuse God’s invitation. In their place God would fill His kingdom with people whom they themselves despised. God’s plan was not theirs, and God would accomplish His plan in His way, not in their way.

TO GIVE UP EVERYTHING RATHER THAN LOSING GOD

On another occasion Jesus teaches the people what they must do, if they are to enter the Kingdom of God. ‘If anyone,’ He says, ‘comes to me and does not hate his father and mother, and wife and children, and brothers and sisters, yes, and even his own life, he cannot be my disciple. And he who does not carry his cross, cannot be my disciple’ (Luke 14:25-27).

Now Jesus does not mean that hatred of one’s relatives and of one’s own life is the key to membership in the Kingdom of God. He means that a man must so love God that he is prepared to give up everything rather than lose God. He must love God so much that he will, if necessary, give up even his life for the sake of God.

BEWARE OF SELFISH DESIRES FOR THE PASSING GOODS OF THIS WORLD

Moreover this total dedication to God must persevere throughout life. It must, therefore, be made deliberately, with knowledge of what it entails. The man who dedicates himself to God by following Christ must not be like the builder of the tower who lays the foundation of the tower without knowing how much he will need to finish the whole tower. If he has not estimated how much material he will need, he may find himself forced to stop building before he has completed his work. The follower of Jesus must realise from the beginning that he must be ready to give up everything to follow Jesus. If he sets out to follow Jesus with a divided heart, a heart not totally dedicated to God, he may find that his selfish desires for the passing goods of this world will lead him to desert Jesus before he has reached the goal of the eternal Kingdom of God.

GOD’s TENDER LOVE FOR MEN

Among those listening to Jesus were many sinners, sinners at least in the eyes of the Pharisees. The latter murmured that Jesus welcomed sinners, as if that were a proof that He Himself could not be good. In reply Jesus told them three parables in which He pointed out that God, in His love for men, rejoiced in the conversion of sinners. Will not the shepherd, He asked them, who has lost one of his sheep, go in search of it and rejoice when he has found it? Will not a woman who has lost one small coin search for it until she has found it, and rejoice when she has recovered it? So also God and the angels rejoice when even one sinner repents.

THE PARABLE OF THE PRODIGAL SON

These two parables are followed by the parable of the Prodigal Son, a tender parable of God’s mercy to the repentant sinner. A father had two sons. The younger son had so ardent a desire to taste the pleasures of the world that he could not wait for his father to die and leave him his inheritance. He asked his father for his share at once. The father granted his request. Then the younger son went to a far country where he squandered his wealth in loose living. He was finally reduced to the lowly task of swineherd and was not even as well fed as the swine he tended. Then he remembered his father’s tender love for him and he resolved to return home and ask forgiveness, even if it meant that his father might make him only a servant in the household. But, on his return, his father welcomed him with open arms, dressed him in the finest clothes and prepared a great feast for him. This made the elder brother, who had remained at home working soberly and industriously, jealous and he refused to attend the feast. But the father said to him, ‘Son, thou art always with me, and all that is mine is thine. But we were bound to make merry and rejoice, for this thy brother was dead, and has come to life; he was lost, and is found’ (Luke 15:31-32).

God’s love for sinners is like the love of the father for his prodigal son. If the son will but turn to God, his Father, in repentance, then God will receive him with open arms and readmit him to the fullness of his Father’s life. The just, who have remained faithful to God, must not be jealous of the salvation of the sinner. God’s wealth is so great that the favours He restores to sinners are not taken away from the just. Rather, the just, because they identify their wills with the will of God, will rejoice at the conversion of every sinner.

THE PARABLE OF THE UNJUST STEWARD

About this time Jesus, apparently in the presence of the Pharisees, explained to His disciples how they were to regard the goods of this world, especially money, the symbol of the goods of the world. A certain man, He said, had a steward who squandered his master’s possessions. The master on learning of this asked him to account for his stewardship. The steward, realising that he would lose his high position, and desirous of still living well, sent for all those who owed money to his master and gave them new contracts decreasing the amount of their debts. Thus, when he was discharged by his master, the friends he had gained by lowering their debts received him into their houses.

Jesus does not commend the steward for his unjust actions. But He remarks that the unjust steward, whose sole concern was for money, knew how to deal with others, who were also afflicted only with a love of money, so that he did not lose what he desired. Then Jesus points the lesson. Those who love God must be as wise in their search for God as are those who love money in their search for money. They must be prepared to give up everything else in order to be received into God’s everlasting dwelling.

The reference to money in this parable leads Jesus to an even more important lesson. The good things of this world have been given by God to men to lead them to God. Men are only the stewards of God in the employment and use of the goods of the world. This is especially true of money. Therefore men must use money in such wise that it does not take them away from God. Men cannot serve both God and mammon, that is, they cannot dedicate themselves totally to both or partially to both. They must dedicate themselves only to God. Money they must use in subordination to their dedication to God. If their love for money were to draw them away from God, they would fail to achieve their true destiny, union with God.

This attitude of detachment toward money disturbed the Pharisees. They loved money. They believed that God would give prosperity to the Chosen People, above all to themselves, who were so zealous to observe the Mosaic Law. The words of Jesus displeased them and they began to sneer at them.

THE PARABLE OF THE RICH MAN AND LAZARUS

Jesus answered them in the parable of the rich man and Lazarus. The rich man dressed in fine clothes and dined well each day. But Lazarus, the poor man, lived only on crumbs which were thrown away from the table of the rich man. But the rich man was evil, and when he died, he went to hell. Lazarus, on the other hand, was good, and when he died, he was received into Abraham’s bosom. The rich man asked Abraham to allow Lazarus to come down and slake his thirst. Abraham replied that this was now impossible. The rich man asked then that Lazarus might return to life and warn the rich man’s brothers. But Abraham replied that his brothers had the Law of Moses and the Prophets, as he himself had had. If they would not listen to Moses and the Prophets, they would not listen even to a man who had returned from the grave.

DEDICATING ONESELF WHOLEHEARTEDLY TO GOD

In this parable Jesus sought to teach the Pharisees that God’s love and mercy did not depend on wealth. Wealth was not an infallible sign of God’s favour. Nor did God promise His kingdom only to the wealthy. But He rewarded men with eternal life because of their goodness. God’s mercy is extended to all those, whether rich or poor, who repent of their sins and dedicate themselves to God.

Shortly after this Jesus began His last journey to Jerusalem. But, while in Perea, He had given the world the great doctrine of God’s mercy. Men are sinners. They have deserted God for the pleasures and power of this world. But, if they will repent, if they will resolve to use this world only for the love of God, if they will follow Christ wholeheartedly, giving up all rather than lose God, then God will pardon them their sins and receive them once again as His beloved sons.

 

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TODAY’S GOSPEL READING (MATTHEW 13:24-43)

LET THEM BOTH GROW TILL THE HARVEST.

Jesus put another parable before the crowds, “The kingdom of heaven may be compared to a man who sowed good seed in his field. While everybody was asleep his enemy came, sowed darnel all among the wheat, and made off. When the new wheat sprouted and ripened, the darnel appeared as well.

The owner’s servants went to him and said, ‘Sir, was it not good seed that you sowed in your field? If so, where does the darnel come from?’ ‘Some enemy has done this,’ he answered. And the servants said, ‘Do you want us to go and weed it out?’

But he said, ‘No, because when you weed out the darnel you might pull up the wheat with it. Let them both grow till the harvest; and at harvest time I shall say to the reapers: First collect the darnel and tie it in bundles to be burnt, then gather the wheat into my barn.’”

He put another parable before them, “The kingdom of heaven is like a mustard seed which a man took and sowed in his field. It is the smallest of all the seeds, but when it has grown it is the biggest shrub of all and becomes a tree so that the birds of the air come and shelter in its branches.”

He told them another parable, “The kingdom of heaven is like the yeast a woman took and mixed in with three measures of flour till it was leavened all through.”

In all this Jesus spoke to the crowds in parables; indeed, he would never speak to them except in parables. This was to fulfil the prophecy:

I will speak to you in parables
and expound things hidden since the foundation of the world.

Then, leaving the crowds, he went to the house; and his disciples came to him and said, “Explain the parable about the darnel in the field to us.” He said in reply, “The sower of the good seed is the Son of Man. The field is the world; the good seed is the subjects of the kingdom; the darnel, the subjects of the evil one; the enemy who sowed them, the devil; the harvest is the end of the world, the reapers are the angels. Well then, just as the darnel is gathered up and burnt in the fire, so it will be at the end of time. The Son of Man will send his angels and they will gather out of his kingdom all things that provoke offences and all who do evil, and throw them into the blazing furnace, where there will be weeping and grinding of teeth. Then the virtuous will shine like the sun in the kingdom of their Father. Listen, anyone who has ears!”

V. The Gospel of the Lord.
R. Praise to you, Lord Jesus Christ.

 

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