Tag Archives: New Adam


“‘The kingdom of heaven is like to leaven which a woman took and hid in three measures of meal, until the whole was leavened’ (Matthew 13:33).


The Church, the kingdom which Jesus established in the world for the salvation of men, is endowed with many qualities, some visible and some invisible. It is visible in its hierarchy, in the distinction which exists between the Pope, bishops and priests and laity: the Pope, bishops and priests who teach the message of Jesus to the world and administer the sacraments whereby the grace of Jesus is communicated to men; and the laity who receive and believe the message and accept the sacraments whereby they are saved. But the Church is invisible in the grace which it communicates to men. The sacraments which communicate grace to men can be perceived by the senses of men, but the grace which they impart, since it is a share in the very life of God Himself, is as invisible as the divine life. Thus it is that the Church, which is a visible organism, visible in its hierarchy and its membership in this world, visible in the preaching and professing of the Gospel, visible in its sacraments and divine worship, is also through the grace it imparts invisible like leaven hidden in flour. The hidden leaven, however, does produce a visible effect: the loaf of bread into which it raises and expands the flour. Similarly the grace of God, which is the life of the Kingdom of Jesus, though it produces chiefly a spiritual invisible effect, also produces visible effects in the world of men, a raising and an expansion of the knowledge and the conduct of men. It is this latter effect of the life of the kingdom on the life of the world that we shall now briefly consider.


In the first place the Kingdom of God on earth, through the action of the Holy Spirit, thhe source of life, has raised the minds of men from ignorance to truth. It is through faith, the power to believe which the Holy Spirit gives to men, that men know the basic truths which explain the meaning of existence. Moved and guided by the Holy Spirit, the Church teaches men that there is one supreme God, Whose life is so intense that it is shared in its ineffable unity by three divine Persons, the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. This Triune God is absolute, infinite Love, and from the generosity of this Love there flows the creative act whereby God creates the world, gives existence to all that has been, is or will be. In this same infinite generosity God calls His intellectual creatures, angels and men who are created in His own image and likeness, to share most intimately in His own Trinitarian life, to live as children and friends with the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. But this call is to be answered freely by angels and men, for God has generously given them the freat gift and power of individual freedom.


Unfortunately some of the angels, through pride, rejected the divine call and have been condemned forever to the loss of the promised vision of God, a loss which is the principal element of the hell to which they have been condemned. One of them, their leader Satan, moved by the hatred and envy of good which sin engenders, seduced Adam and Eve, the first human beings. In Adam and Eve the whole human race lost the divine grace which would have ultimately brought all men to the blessed vision of God. But God, because of His infinite love and mercy for men, determined to give men another chance. In the fullness of time He sent His own Son, the Second Person of the Trinity, to save men. The Son of God became man, incarnate in the womb of the Virgin Mary, who thus became the Mother of God. This incarnate God, known in human history as Jesus the Christ, both Son of God and Son of Mary, gave to the world the message of hope and salvation whereby men are freed from ignorance of their own destiny, of the true meaning of their existence. By His saving death on the Cross, a death which He offered freely to His Father as a payment for the sins of men, He won from the Father the return of divine grace to men, the grace which enables men to share in the life of God in this present world and to grow into the vision of God which is their true destiny after death. To convey this grace to men, to inform men of the divine message of hope and salvation, Jesus established His kingdom, His Church, the One, Holy, Roman, Catholic Church [Mt 16:18]. The Church exists in the world as a visible sign of God’s call to men to share in His divine life [Mt 5:14-16;17-18], to escape from the monotonous, frustrating misery to which mankind is bound if it will not answer the call of God’s love. It is in and through the Church, in union with Christ, Who is the Head of His Body [Col 1:18; 1 Cor 12:12], which is the Church, that men offer to God the one true sacrifice of the Body and Blood of Jesus [Mk 14:22-24; 1 Cor 10:16]. It is by uniting themselves with the sacrifice of the Body and the Blood of Jesus on the Cross, a sacrifice which is perpetually re-presented to God and to the world in the sacrifice of the Mass, that men offer to God the worship of adoration, thanksgiving, petition and reparation for sin which is alone pleasing to God. It is through the Mass and the sacraments, whose efficacy stems from the Cross, that God blesses man’s worship with the gift of His grace, molding men into the likeness of Jesus, His well-beloved Son, so that through this likeness they may be acceptable to God and may share in His life.


Down through the ages of time, such time as it is still allotted to man, the Church will bring this message and these means of salvation. If men will heed the divine call and live in God’s grace, they will be rewarded with the vision of God, in which man’s true happiness is alone found, and at the end of time they will rise gloriously from the tomb to live forever even in the body. If they will not heed the call or remain faithful to it in God’s grace, at death they will forfeit forever the vision of God and at the end they will rise ingloriously in the body to suffer eternally even in the body.


Those who heed the call of Jesus and enter into His kingdom in this world form with Him one Body, His Church. They live with Him, in Him and by Him. The bond of their union with Him is not only the external profession of faith by which they give their allegiance to Him and to His message but it is also the invisible bond of grace and charity by which they share in His divine life and by which they live in union with Him, with His Father and His Holy Spirit, and with one another in the Communion of Saints, which is His Church.


At the end of time Jesus, the Son of God to Whom God the Father has given all judgment, will come with His angels and His Apostles to judge all men. When by His judgment the good have been separated from the wicked, then will all men see the true final dimensions of His kingdom. Then will all men and angels see the final result of that leavening action which the Church, the Kingdom of God, is now exercising, partly visibly and partly invisibly, in this present world.


This, all too briefly and inadequately, is a summary of the great truths which God reveals to the world in and through His Church, His kingdom on earth. Those who receive it humbly and lovingly in faith are enriched intellectually, immeasurably beyond those who will not accept it. Through the revealed word and the incarnate Word of God they have learned the secrets of the innermost core of being, of existence. Though they live in the midst of the bewildering and frustrating complexities of sinful human history, they know, in faith, that beneath all apparent contradictions and beyond all hopelessness there lies the one Truth and Love which is God, the foundation of hope. In the golden age which flourishes in each civilisation which comes to be in human history, they are not so beguiled by the beauty and perfection of the world man has made as to forsake the God Who is the Author of man’s perfection. In times of barbarity and decadence, such as come at the decline of all purely human civilisations, they are not so disheartened as to hate and reject, or to hopelessness and despair. Armed with the saving Truth of God, with the knowledge of the hope-engendering Love of God, the member of Christ’s kingdom lives serenely in the midst of the calm or the turbulence of human history, knowing that the God Who underlies and permeates all history will in His own good time manifest the meaning of it all.


The Church, of course, is primarily interested in transmitting to men the knowledge of the divine revelation which Jesus, her Founder and Head, has entrusted to her. But, as a kingdom founded on universal charity, on love for all men and for all that is truly human, she has in the course of history interested herself in the discovery and transmission of all true knowledge.

In the beginning, as was natural, her interest was chiefly in theology, the application of human reason to the proper understanding of divine revelation and of the Sacred Scriptures (the Bible) in which the story of God’s revelation is contained.


In the case of Sacred Scripture it is the Church herself who preserved these inspired books for the world. As early as 382 A.D. A Council of Rome under Pope Damasus drew up the list of the books of the Old and the New Testaments. The list was reaffirmed by the third Council of Carthage in 397, by Pope Innocent I in 405 and by Pope Gelasius I in 495. It was not until 1546 at the Council of Trent that the Church, faced with the attempts of some of the ‘Reformers’ to remove from the Bible texts which could not be reconciled with their new doctrines (Luther [threw out books ‘clashing’ with his brand new doctrine including] the Epistle of St James which said, ‘So also, faith, if it have not works, is dead in itself,’ a statement which contradicted Luther’s teaching that faith alone was necessary for salvation), reaffirmed both the divine inspiration of the Bible and the list of books of the Bible which the Church had accepted from the beginning.


The first traces of this effort can be seen in the works of the early Christian apologists, especially Justin the Martyr and Tertullian. Justin, a pagan philosopher converted to Christianity, sought, even if not quite correctly, to show that the human wisdom of the pagans had been anticipated by and even perhaps drawn from the divine reveltions contained in the Bible. Tertullian, with a mind more legal than philosophical, sought to give more precision to the terms in which the Christian mysteries were to be affirmed. In the middle of the second century A.D. We find a theological school functioning at Alexandria in Egypt, a famous centre of Greek and Jewish learning. In the middle of the third century a new theological school was founded at Antioch. From this time on, the Church has never lacked schools of theology and theologians. Before the breakdown of the Roman Empire the Church had produced the enduring theological works of the Great Cappadocians, Basil the Great, Gregory Nazianzen and Gregory of Nyssa, and in the Western Church the powerful theological understanding manifested in the works of the great St Augustine, Bishop of Hippo in Africa.


Even after the collapse of the empire in the face of the barbarian invasions of Europe and Africa, and in spite of the disruption of the Christian world by the Mohammedan conquests, ecclesiastical study and learning did not cease. Christian monks, especially the Benedictines, a monastic order founded at Monte Cassino in 529 by St Benedict, preserved in their monasteries copies of the books of the Bible, of the works of the Christian apologists and theologians, and even the works of pagan writers. They conducted schools for the education of the young and the training of clerics for the service of the Church and the civil authorities. In the seventh century Irish monks conducted schools in Ireland and sent teachers to the Continent to conduct schools there. Under the great Emperor Charlemagne a nnew impetus was given to learning by the founding of his famed Palace School under the guidance of a group of scholars drawn from all Europe. During the Carolingian Renaissance under the successors of Charlemagne interest in learning increased. The study of theology was furthered by the reintroduction of the use of Aristotele’s Logic. A new interest in classical Latin literature led even to a revival of works of poetry.


By the twelfth century theologians were well on their way to a great synthesis of all theological learning. Peter Lombard composed his ‘Four Books of Sentences,’ in which he tried, with great success, to organise systematically all theology. Efforts such as this came to greater success in the thirteenth century, especially in the masterful Summa theologiae of St Thomas Aquinas, a theological synthesis whose influence has lasted until the present time.


After the Golden Age of Scholasticism (as it came to be called) in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, theology and philosophy declined in quality until the attacks of the ‘Reformers’ on the authority of the Church brought on a revival. At first, as circumstances dictated, the efforts of theologians. Were devoted to a defence of the Church as God’s mouthpiece in the world. But a more serious danger soon threatened the leavening action of the Church in the world. Under influence of the philosophical errors of Descartes, Locke, Hume and Kant, philosophy was corrupted and fell into the decadence of relativism, the theory that since nothing is absolutely true then anything and everything, even contradictory propositions and contradictory religious doctrines, can be simultaneously true. Moreover (according to relativist theory), since contradictory views can both be true, even in matters of religion, there can be no exclusively true divine revelation recognisable as such. According to this view then all religions are equally true or none is true, and since (as they say) there can be no rational justification of any particular religion, the ultimate foundation of any religion would have to be purely subjective and emotional.


This is the modern religious error which the Church, the teacher of mankind, faces. Against it the Church at the Vatican Council reaffirmed its belief in the power of the human mind to discover the existence of God and to recognise as divine the revelation which the Church is divinely commissioned to teach to the world. This particular struggle is not yet over; the Pope and bishops and the philosophers and theologians of the Church are still labouring to effect a reconciliation of the spirit of the times with the eternal truths of God’s revelation.


As we have already suggested, the Church has not only fostered the pursuit of theological knowledge. She has also preserved and promoted general knowledge. The classical works of paganism, literary, historical, scientific, philosophical and theological, were preserved by the Church through the so-called Dark Ages of medieval Europe. They were learned and taught in conjunction with religious knowledge. Though for centuries learning was the privilege of the nobility or of the wealthy, the Church was always interested in the instruction of the poor. For centuries clerics of the Church were among the most learned men of their times, and the Church was always solicitous to give clerical training to the children of the poor. The great medieval universities (such as the Sorbonne at Paris and Oxford) were founded under the aegis of the Church and staffed by clerics of the Church. The Council of Trent in the sixteenth century urged the foundation of elementary schools. Great teaching orders, such as the Jesuits, the congregations of teaching brothers and sisters, have been founded to give the benefits of education to all. Like her Master, Jesus, the Church strives to bring to all men the truth which will make them free.


The leavening work of the Church has not been restricted to the field of knowledge. Through her influence and example the moral tone of mankind has also been elevated. In the pagan and corrupt world in which the Church was born, she appeared as the champion of a highly elevated moral code. She reprobated not only sinful external actions but even sinful internal desires and decisions. Not only was adultery forbidden, for example, but even the sinful lusting of the heart after forbidden impurities. Not only was chastity in marriage inculcated, but virginity (for both men and women) was extolled. As a consequence of original sin human beings are all too prone to forget God in the pursuit and enjoyment even of legitimate pleasures such as those of marriage. As an example of true dedication to God, man’s true destiny, the Church holds up to the eyes of the world its celibate priests, its consecrated monks and nuns. By their practice of virginity they are an example to the world of the utter dedication to God which is the fundamental duty of all men. Besides, by their faithfulness to their dedication they prove to the weak, the timid and the ungenerous that the grace of God, purchased by the Blood of Jesus, can really set men free from the tyranny of the devil, the world and the flesh. Moreover, from the beginning the Church has taught the world that heroic virtue is possible, not through human justice but through the supernatural charity, the supernatural love of God and man which God gives to men with His grace. Sin has begotten discord and hatred in the life of humanity. Grace and charity will not only restore men to union with God but also enable men to live in harmony and love with one another.


The Church appeared in the world of men preaching this high moral ideal. Over the centuries it has succeeded in realising this ideal in varying degrees. On the level of the individual person it has had from the beginning startling successes. In the first three hundred years of its existence thousands of Christians publicly manifested their dedication to God to the extent of giving up their lives for Him during the Roman persecutions of Christianity. The leavening vitality of the Gospel, its power to lead men to prefer God to all else, is all the more noticeable in the fact that the early Christian martyrs are found not only among the nobility and the military forces (who might be expected by reason of their breeding, position or training to be brave in the profession of their faith) but also among the women, both rich and poor, and children. These early martyrs were the first Christian saints. Their example of preference for God even over life itself has been imitated by all the martyrs for Christ down to the present time.


Even in times and places where the Church has not been actively persecuted, the Church has never been lacking in examples of men and women totally dedicated to the love and service of God and man. From St Martin of Tours (the first non-martyr to be recognised as a saint by the Church) to St Maria Goretti in this present time (a young girl who preferred death to loss of chastity) the history of the Church shows a procession of saints choosing God rather than the seductive pleasures of the world. In addition to the canonised saints of the Church, from the very beginning of her life on earth the Church has inspired countless thousands to forswear the pleasures of the world and its power for the love of God in monasteries and convents.


In a world corrupted and debased by the indulgence of the flesh St Mary Magdalene and St Augustine give testimony to the power of God to convert and save the sinner. In a world torn by restless human ambitions and the marches and countermarches of military conquest, St Benedict and St Scholastica forsake worldly ambition for the peace and the love of God. In a world beginning anew to love money and wealth overmuch St Francis of Assisi gives up all his worldy possessions to the poor and embraces his Lady Poverty for the love of God and man. In a world in which nationalistic aims are seeking to divide and conquer the Church of Christ St Ignatius founds the Society of Jesus to defend and spread the Kingdom of God universally among men. In a world in which misguided men were trying to find God outside His own Church, insisting that no intermediary be interposed between the individual and God, God raised up a St Teresa of Avila and a St John of the Cross to show that true unity with God is to be sought in the fruitful bosom of His Church.


But it is not only in the lives of individual saints that the power of the Gospel has been manifest. Through the influence of the Church social morality in general has also been raised to higher levels. Even though the ignorance and weak wills of men have made the process slow and uncertain at times, the Gospel of Jesus has brought great benefits to mankind. From the beginning the Church has made no distinction between slaves and freemen. Over the centuries this has gradually led to the abolition of slavery in Christian nations. The Church’s doctrines and its reverence for Mary, the Mother of God, has likewise led many nations to raise the position of women in society. In a truly Christian society they cannot be regarded as either the slaves or the playthings of men. Even the horrors of war were mitigated under the influence of the doctrine of Christ. In the Middle Ages (the great ages of faith thus far in the history of the world) the Church even induced men to practise the Truce of God, whereby they abstained from battle on certain feast days. In modern times with the rise of capitalism and the industrial revolution the Church has fought for the rights of both capital and labour, for the right and necessity of labour unions to exist and to function for just wages. In large part the present world, even when expressly anti-Catholic, is living under the influence and heritage of the great elevation of morals brought to the world by the preaching and practice of Christian moral doctrine.

Of course the Church has not been completely successful in elevating the moral conduct of all men, even of all those nominally members of the kingdom of God. Nor does she ever expect in this present world to be completely successful. Jesus has told her more than once that she will always count among her members good and evil men. The Church He has told her is like a net which brings up both good and bad fish, or a field in which both good grain and weeds will grow. It is God Who will separate the good from the evil and manifest His judgement at the end of the world. So the Church is not dismayed at the scandalous behaviour of some Christians, even though at times they be in high places, perhaps as in the cases of some few Popes, even in the highest place of all. In spite of all individual defections the Church continues to preach Christian morality to the world.


Today the Church faces the horror of totalitarianism, a godless totalitarianism which denies God, rides roughshod over the dignity of individuals, reduces men to statistics. Almost alone in the world she still cries out that God gave Himself on a Cross for the salvation of all men and that therefore each human being is in himself of inestimable value, a child of God, a brother of Jesus the Christ.


How this present struggle of the Church with the power of the devil and the bad will of men will be resolved we cannot at present see. But, whether the Church grows or diminishes in the present world, it still remains true that she will be until the end a leaven in the world, secretly or openly building up the kingdom of heaven until it reaches the stature already determined by God. At the end of time with the general judgement of God the true proportions of the kingdom, the full extent of the leaven of the Church, will be revealed in the final Kingdom of God.”
– Martin J. Healy, S.T.D., 1959 (headings in capital letters added afterwards)


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After the Ascension of Jesus to His Father the Apostles returned to Jerusalem. St Luke tells us that they returned ‘with great joy. And they were continually in the temple, praising and blessing God’ (Luke 24:52-53).


At first sight it seems strange that they should have rejoiced at the departure of Jesus, their Lord and Master, from this world. By His going they had lost the physical presence of their Friend, their Master, indeed, their God. But, they rejoiced, they praised and blessed God. What explains their joy, their praise of God? It must be – what the Gospel story intimates – that in the interval between the Resurrection and the Ascension of Jesus they learned, through the instruction of Jesus Himself, the real meaning of Jesus, the significance of His life, His death, His Resurrection and His Ascension. This new knowledge was so important, so filled with blessing for them and for the world that, in spite of their sadness at the departure of Jesus Himself, they rejoiced and, in turn, praised the God they had known in Him. At last they knew the mystery of Jesus, and they believed in Him, hoped in Him and loved Him. They would spend their lives giving to the world this belief, this hope and this love.


What was this new understanding of Jesus which so filled them with joy and with the desire to communicate this joy to the whole world? Since the time of the Apostles innumerable books have been written to explain the mystery which is Jesus. Here we must be content to give the simplest outline of the belief of the Apostles, a belief which was to change the face of the earth, to transform the lives of men.


First of all, we must remember that the Apostles were Jews, members of God’s Chosen People. They saw Jesus against the background of the sacred history of their own people. Thus they saw in Jesus the fulfilment of God’s promises to Israel and, through Israel, to the whole world. In Jesus they saw the salvation which God had promised to mankind.


They knew that Adam, the forefather of all men, had by his sin brought death and disorder to mankind. They remembered that it was the malice of the devil which had led to the sin of Adam. God had promised that sometime the son, the child of woman, would triumph over the devil and sin. In the Resurrection of Jesus they saw the first fruit of that triumph. By the power of God Jesus had risen from death to eternal life with the Father in heaven.


They knew, too, that when mankind had grown to some maturity in the disordered world which sin had created, when the great empires of Babylonia and Egypt had flourished, bringing civilisation and human culture to the world, then God had chosen Abraham to be the father of God’s Chosen People. He had promised great blessings to Abraham and, through Abraham, to all the families of the earth (Genesis 12:1-3).

This blessing has descended from Abraham to Isaac, from Isaac to Jacob. And Jacob had passed it on to Juda [Judah]. Jacob had promised that the rule over the Chosen People would belong to Juda until ‘he comes to whom it (the sceptre) belongs and to whom the nations shall obey’ (Genesis 49:10).

From the house of Juda then was to come the great ruler of the people of God, a ruler whom even the nations of the world would obey. The prophet Balaam had also foretold that a ‘star’ would rise from Jacob, a sceptre from Israel (Numbers 24:17).


In the tribe of Juda the blessing was given to King David. The prophet Nathan promised to David, ‘Your house and your kingship will exist forever before me; your throne will remain firm forever’ (2 Samuel 7:16).

In the Psalms David himself described the ‘Anointed One,’ the Christ Whom the Chosen People awaited. In Psalms David portrayed the kings and peoples of the earth conspiring against God and His Anointed. But God says to His Anointed, ‘You are my son, today I have begotten you. Petition me and I will give you the nations as an inheritance, the ends of the earth as your possession’ (Psalm 2:7-8).

In Psalm 110 David spoke of a ‘Lord’ Who sits at the right hand of God, Whom God sends forth from Sion to ‘rule in the midst of your enemies.’ This ‘Lord’ is ‘begotten’ by God, and a ‘priest forever, according to the order of Melchisedech.’


To Achaz, one of the descendants of David, God had said, ‘Behold, the virgin will conceive and bear a son, and she will call his name Emmanuel’ (Isaias [Isaiah] 7:14). At the time when the armies of Assyria were advancing on Jerusalem Isaias had foretold that this child would be born to the Chosen People. ‘Sovereignty’ would rest upon his shoulders; he would be called ‘Wondrous-Counsellor, Mighty-God, Eternal-Father, Prince-of-Peace.’ He would sit upon the throne of David and rule his kingdom ‘through righteousness and justice’ (Isaias 9:1-6).


Again Isaias had described the Anointed One of God as a descendant of Jesse, the father of David: ‘A twig will come forth from the stump of Jesse, from his roots a sprig will sprout. The spirit of Jahweh will rest upon him: the spirit of wisdom and of understanding, the spirit of counsel and fortitude, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of Jahweh’ (Isaias 11:1-2). The descendant of Jesse will rule with justice and righteousness.

Both Isaias and Micheas [Micah] had foretold that in the time of the Anointed One of God all the nations of the earth would enter the Kingdom of God. The word of God would go out from Jerusalem to all the world (Isaias 2:2-4; Micheas [Micah] 4:1-3).

Micheas had proclaimed that the promised king would be born at Bethlehem: ‘from you will he come forth to me who will reign over Israel’ (Micheas [Micah] 5:1).


The Apostles, like their contemporary fellow-countrymen, knew that God had promised to bring blessings to them and, through them, to the rest of the world. They knew that the channel of these blessings had been narrowed down by God from Abraham through Isaac, Jacob, Juda and David to some one individual, a descendant of David, who would extend the Kingdom of God to the whole world. They knew that this promised king, this Anointed One of God, would be born of a virgin at Bethlehem.

Thus when they met Jesus and followed Him they were ready to accept Him as the Messias, the Anointed One of God. His doctrines and His miracles enabled them to see in Him the Promised One for Whom they had been waiting.

But, like their countrymen, they had been expecting a royal Messias who would lead them to worldly glory. Hence, when they saw Him refusing to become a temporal king, when they saw Him arrested, tried and put to death like a common criminal, they were bewildered and confused and they lost heart.


The Resurrection of Jesus, however, and the instructions which He gave them during the forty days He remained with them on earth opened their eyes to the unperceived riches of their own scriptures. After His Resurrection Jesus showed them that they had attended only to the glorious aspects of the Messias they expected. They had ignored the more difficult prophecies about the sufferings and death of the Messias. Jesus recalled to them the words of Isaias about the ‘Servant of Jahweh,’ Who as the Messias would bring blessings to all men, but who would suffer and die. Far from being a man the people might admire, he would be despised. He would take upon Himself the sins of men: He would be bruised and pierced for the sins of men so that men might be saved. He would be led to death like a lamb to the slaughter.

He recalled to them the words of Zacharias [Zechariah]: ‘Behold thy King will come to thee, the just and the saviour. He is poor and riding upon an ass and upon a colt, the foal of an ass’ (Zacharias [Zechariah] 9:9).


Faced with the risen Jesus, perceiving in His very aliveness the triumph of man over sin and death, the Apostles under His instruction finally saw the true meaning of their own scriptures, the true meaning of God’s promises. The Messias, the Christ, would be a king indeed, but a king in the world of the spirit of man. He would rule, not an earthly kingdom but the hearts of men. He would gain His kingdom, not by military or political conquest but by the sacrifice of Himself on the cross for the salvation of mankind. His triumph would be achieved through humiliation and death. His triumph would not be over the kingdoms of the earth, but over the devil, sin and death. The evils brought into the world by the disobedience of Adam – sin, disease and death, the rule of the devil over the souls of men – these evils would be overcome by the obedience of the Anointed One of God. By his sin Adam had preferred his own advantage to God and so had lost the Kingdom of God for himself and for all his children. By His obedience, and obedience unto death, Jesus had preferred God to His own advantage, to His own human life, and so He had won back for all men the kingdom of God.

The Apostles knew that the sacrifice of Jesus was successful, effective, for they saw with their own eyes that God had given life back to Jesus, had made Him immortal in the flesh and glorious. Thus they were able to reconcile the two apparently contradictory descriptions of the Messias given in the scriptures of their people. The Messias would be a glorious, triumphant king; He would also be a servant, despised and humiliated, put to death by His enemies. In Jesus, in the gloriously risen Jesus, the Apostles saw these contradictions merge with one another, vanish. And the picture of the Messias which emerged from this merging of contradictories was even more glorious than had been their former dreams of worldly glory.


For Jesus, Whom they recognised clearly as the Messias, the Christ, was not only man, He was God Himself, the Son of God. In Him they saw God Himself. He had come into this world not to establish simply an earthly kingdom filled with earthly peace and blessing. He had come to give men the far greater blessing of eternal life, the blessing of sharing in the life of God Himself, Father, Son and Holy Spirit. Through Him and in Him and with Him they would conquer sin and death and the devil. By His grace they would rise with Him to the Father, to rule gloriously in heaven.


In the mysterious love and providence of God they had been chosen to bring this great blessing of eternal life to the rest of men. They had been chosen to assist the Son of God to establish the Kingdom of God among men. It is no wonder, then, that they returned from witnessing the Ascension of Jesus with hearts filled with joy and thankfulness to God. For them the mystery of human existence had been solved. Man had been bound over to death and the devil through sin. In Jesus sin had been overcome, and with sin death and the devil had been conquered. They rejoiced as men truly reborn, and born now not just to a passing existence here on earth but born to eternal life.


Under the tutelage of the risen Jesus they now saw that all human history up to that time was but a preparation for the coming of Jesus and His work of redemption. Jesus was the centre of all history, the centre which gave meaning to the growing circle of human history.

Without Jesus human life on earth was doomed to the ever-recurring cycles of human history, to repetitive beginnings, flowerings and decay of human civilisations and cultures.

But with Jesus human life could be raised above these earth-bound cycles to the eternal Now of God. God Himself had descended into the world of man, became a man to raise men to God. Without Jesus all men had been doomed after this present life to the eternal boredom, frustration and pain which is hell. Through Jesus it became possible for all men to rise to the perfect satisfaction of all human desires which is life with God in heaven.


Because all human history up to that time was but a preparation for the coming of Jesus it was only fitting that previous persons and events foreshadow or prefigure Jesus Himself. Thus the Apostles were able to see even Adam, the first man, as a figure of Jesus. As the first man it was the function of Adam to bind men to God by his obedience. Adam, it is true, failed. But Jesus, the Christ, the First Man of the New Covenant, succeeded.

Abel offered to God an acceptable sacrifice. So did Jesus, in fact, the only sacrifice perfectly acceptable to God and effective of human salvation.

Melchisedech, whose name means ‘king of justice,’ the king of Salem (which means ‘peace’), offered to God a sacrifice of bread and wine. Jesus offered to God at the Last Supper bread and wine which He changed into His own Body and Blood. This was the clean oblation of which the prophet Malachias [Malachi] spoke, the sacrifice which would be offered to God all over the world, from the rising of the sun to the going down thereof. Melchisedech appears in history with no father or mother, no human genealogy. Jesus has no human father; He was born of a virgin. As God He has no mother; for Mary was only the Mother of God in His human nature.

Isaac carried the wood to Mount Moriah, where at the command of God he was to be sacrificed. Jesus, at the command of God, His Father, carried the wood of the cross to Calvary, where He was to be sacrificed for the sins of men.


This same correspondence between men and events of the Old Testament with Jesus might be expressed in another way by saying that Jesus summed up or recapitulated in Himself the history of mankind in its relations with God. Of course in Jesus this recapitulation is realised in a perfect way. In Jesus there is no failure to respond to God’s will and in Jesus there is found the fullness of God’s grace, in fact, the very fullness of the Godhead Himself.


In the eyes of God Adam represented the whole human race. His obedience would have brought inconceivable blessings to all men. In God’s eyes Jesus represented the whole human race. His obedience has brought great blessings to all men. The Chosen People were in God’s eyes as His ‘son,’ a son through whom the whole world would be blessed. Jesus is Himself the very Son of God, the Son through Whom mankind is really and fully blessed. The Chosen People, God’s ‘son,’ were exiled in Egypt before they entered for good the Promised Land. Jesus, the Son of God, was exiled in Egypt before He returned to the Promised Land to carry out His redemptive work. The Chosen People, God’s ‘son,’ were saved from destruction in Egypt by the shedding of the blood of a lamb. Jesus is Himself the lamb whose blood washes the world from sin. In the annual Passover celebration the Chosen People were forbidden to break any bones of the lamb through whose blood they were saved. On the Cross at Calvary God saw to it that the bones of Jesus, the true Lamb of God, were not broken. Thus also the realities of the Old Testament prefigure Jesus, and the life and deeds of Jesus sum up the realities of the Old Testament and give them new dimension, new depths of reality; for the Old Testament is but a shadow of Jesus, Jesus Himself is the substance of God’s plans for the salvation of mankind.

All these things the Apostles came to see clearly after the Resurrection of Jesus, either through the tutelage of Jesus Himself before His Ascension or through the light of the Holy Spirit which they received on the day of Pentecost.


More than this, they saw finally their own role in the plan of God. They saw that they had been chosen by Jesus to bring the blessing of salvation to all men. They were to be instruments of Jesus in establishing the Kingdom of God among men. From Jesus Himself they had received the commission to make disciples (that is, believers in Jesus) in all nations. These disciples were to be initiated into the Kingdom of God by the reception of the Sacrament of Baptism, that washing with water in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit, which would expel sin from their souls and introduce therein the divine life which Jesus had won for them by shedding His blood on the Cross. Once saved from sin by Baptism these disciples were to be guided in their moral lives by the instructions, by the commands of the Apostles. From Jesus the Apostles received this threefold power to teach men the truths of salvation, to give men the graces by which they could achieve salvation and to rule the human conduct of men in order to lead them to eternal life. Among the Apostles themselves, even though all shared in this threefold power, Peter had been chosen by Jesus to be the head of the whole kingdom, of the whole Church. In the Kingdom of God Peter was the absolute head, the supreme ruler.


The Apostles also knew that while the Kingdom of God would be in this world, it would not be of this world. It would be as observable to men as a light on a mountain top. It would have a structure, an organisation. It would make use of perceptible signs to transmit the life of God to men, the signs of baptism, the laying on of hands for the giving of the Spirit, of the Body and Blood of Jesus, of remission of sins, of the anointing of the sick and the dying, of the laying on of hands for the transmission of the powers entrusted to the Apostles by Jesus, of the elevation of marriage as a sign of the unity of the Church. But, as the last phrase indicates, all these would be external signs of an incomparably greater invisible reality, the union of men with God through union with Jesus, the God-Man. Jesus the Christ is the vine through which the divine life is communicated to those men who would be grafted on Him by baptism. The Kingdom of God on earth would be a union of men with Jesus, a spiritual union whereby Jesus would be the source of divine life for those united to Him, Himself the way by which men reach God, the very Truth the grasping of which would make men free, free of sin and free from the downward drag of sinful human history.

Filled with thoughts such as these the Apostles and the disciples of Jesus, one hundred and twenty in number, waited in Jerusalem for the coming of the Spirit of God Whom Jesus had promised to send them.”
– Martin J. Healy S.T.D., 1959 (Headings in capital letters added afterwards.)


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It is only right, with all the powers of our heart and mind, to praise You Father and Your Only-Begotten Son, our Lord Jesus Christ.
Dear Father, by Your wondrous condescension of Loving-Kindness toward us, Your servants, You gave up Your Son.

Dear Jesus, You paid the debt of Adam for us to the Eternal Father by Your Blood poured forth in Loving-Kindness.
You cleared away the darkness of sin by Your magnificent and radiant Resurrection.
You broke the bonds of death and rose from the grave as a Conqueror.
You reconciled heaven and earth. Our life had no hope of eternal happiness before You redeemed us.
Your Resurrection has washed away our sins, restored our innocence and brought us joy. How inestimable is the tenderness of Your Love!
We pray You, Lord, to preserve Your servants in the peaceful enjoyment of this Easter happiness.

We ask this through Jesus Christ our Lord, Who lives and reigns with God the Father, in the unity of the Holy Spirit, for ever and ever. Amen.
– St Gregory the Great


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“The resurrection of Jesus is the crowning truth of our faith. Jesus’ body was filled with the power of the Spirit. Jesus is truly, as St Paul says, ‘the man from heaven’ (1 Corinthians 15:35-50). Jesus is the first born from among the dead (Colossians 1:18). He is the source of our own resurrection.

On the last day, by God’s grace and mercy, we too will rise from the dead, body and soul and receive the gift of everlasting life in the new kingdom. The words of the great Apostle St Paul echo down through the centuries and this is what we proclaim today on this special and holy day with hope and renewed joy:

‘Christ has been raised from the dead, the first fruits of those who have fallen asleep. For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ shall all be made alive’ (1 Corinthians 15:20-22). Alleluia!”
– From “A Lenten Journey of Prayer for 2009” by AlivePublishing. For information about their booklets please visit (external link).


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“With two criminals also condemned to be crucified, Jesus was led out from Jerusalem to Golgotha, the ‘Place of the Skull.’ He was so weak that the soldiers forced a man named Simon of Cyrene to assist Him in carrying His Cross.

On the was some women of Jerusalem wept over His fate. Jesus said to them, ‘Daughters of Jerusalem, do not weep for me, but weep for yourselves, and for your children. For behold days are coming in which men will say, ‘Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that never bore, and breasts that never nursed.’ Then they will begin to say to the mountains, ‘Fall upon us,’ and to the hills, ‘Cover us!’ For if in the case of green wood they do these things, what is to happen in the case of the dry?’ (Luke 23:28-31).


At Golgotha Jesus was nailed to His Cross and the two thieves were crucified, one on His right hand, and the other on His left. In this way there was fulfilled the prophecy of Isaias [Isaiah] which Jesus had applied to Himself: ‘For I say to you that this which is written must yet be fulfilled in me. ‘And He was reckoned among the wicked” (Luke 22:37, and Isaias 53:12).


Jesus was nailed to the Cross at noon. His first words after He had been raised on the Cross were, ‘Father, forgive them, for they do not know what they are doing’ (Luke 23:34). These words are a witness to the love of God for men, to the love Jesus’ human heart for men. They are also a witness to the foolishness and malice of men.

Jesus was shedding His Blood on the Cross for the salvation of mankind. His own race, His own people had brought this about. Misled by their leaders, they stood at the foot of the Cross of human redemption, mocking their Redeemer.


Pilate, in one last gesture of disdain for the passions of the Jewish leaders, had inscribed on the Cross, ‘Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews’ (John 19:19) [in Latin:’INRI’ – Iesus Nazarenus, Rex Iudaeorum]. The chief priests, refusing to have Jesus for their king, protested, but Pilate remained firm. He was not courageous enough to follow his own principles and save an innocent man. But he was brave enough to indulge in this one small vanity. He would flaunt his own power in the face of the priests and people. But Jesus, ever kind and merciful, prayed to His Father for all of them, the weak, the cowardly, the blind, the malicious.


While Jesus was thus praying for those who were mocking Him, regarding Him as a criminal, the soldiers, as was their custom at an execution, were dividing His garments among themselves. There were four soldiers, and they divided His garments four ways. But when they came to His tunic there was a difficulty. The tunic was seamless and could not be divided. They therefore cast lots to see who should win this prize. Both St John and St Matthew point out that in this way there was fulfilled in the life of Jesus what the Psalmist had said of himself (and, by anticipation, of Jesus): ‘They divide my garments among them; and for my vesture they cast lots’ (Psalm 21:19).


In the midst of this story of humiliation and suffering there was one note of gentleness and compassion. Some of the friends of Jesus were present at the foot of His Cross. His mother Mary was there, Mary of Cleophas, Mary of Magdala, and perhaps a cousin of Mary, the mother of James and Joseph. St John, the beloved disciple, was also there. Noticing them, Jesus addressed His mother and said, ‘Woman, behold thy son.’ Then addressing St John, He said, ‘Behold thy mother’ (John 19:26-27).

Thus Jesus, even in the hour of His agony, was mindful of His filial duty to provide for the care of His mother. And, as St John himself tells us, ‘from that hour the disciple took her into his home’ (John 19:27). Down through the centuries since then, Christians have also seen, and rightfully, in this incident a symbol of the fact that the followers of Jesus, like St John, are the spiritual children of Mary, the mother of the Redeemer.


Meanwhile, the soldiers and the crowd were mocking Jesus. Some who were passing by remembered His words about the destruction of the temple and shouted up to Him, ‘Aha, thou who destroyest the temple, and in three days buildest it up again; come down from the cross, and save thyself!’ (Mark 15:29-30).

The priests and Scribes (perhaps knowingly) applied to Him the words of the twenty-first Psalm, saying, ‘He saved others, himself he cannot save! If he is the King of Israel, let him come down now from the Cross, and we will believe in him. He trusted in God; let him deliver him now, if he wants him; for he said, ‘I am the Son of God” (Matthew 27:42-43).


The two thieves who had been crucified, one on each side of Him, entered into the raillery against Him. Finally one of them said, ‘I thou art the Christ, save thyself and us!’ (Luke 23:39). At this moment the other thief (usually known as Dismas) changed his mind and his heart about Jesus. From an unbeliever he became a believer. He turned to the other thief and said, ‘Dost not even thou fear God, seeing that thou art under the same sentence?’ (Luke 23:40). He recalled the fact that they were all to die shortly and face the judgment of God.


His language implies that they also were being executed for rebellion against the Roman authorities. It is possible that they belonged to some group active in its opposition to Rome. This is confirmed by his next words, ‘And we indeed justly, for we are receiving what our deeds deserved, but this man has done nothing wrong’ (Luke 23:41).

Then, believing in Jesus, he turned to Him and said, ‘Lord, remember me when thou comest into thy kingdom.’ Jesus rewarded his faith by saying to him, ‘Amen I say to thee, this day thou shalt be with me in paradise’ (Luke 23:42-43). Jesus meant that on that very day the good thief would be with Jesus in the ‘paradise’ where the souls of the just were awaiting release so that they might enter heaven, the Kingdom of God.


About the ninth hour, that is, about three o’clock in the afternoon, Jesus cried out in a loud voice, ‘Eli, Eli, lama sabacthani,’ that is, ‘My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?’ (Matthew 27:46). The words are mysterious. Jesus is the very Son of God, one with God the Father, equally God with the Father and the Holy Spirit. How then could God forsake Him, abandon Him?


It is true that Jesus, as St Paul teaches, bore on His shoulders on the Cross the sins of all humanity (Galatians 3:13). At this moment then He could be regarded in God’s eyes as representative of all human evil. But God sees truly and He knows that Jesus, while bearing the sins of men, is in Himself the innocent, the unstained victim for the sins of men. Hence He could not have abandoned Jesus absolutely; it would have been to abandon Himself.

The mystery of these words vanished somewhat when we recall that Jesus is reciting the opening words of the twenty-first Psalm. Twice already this Psalm has entered the story of the Passion of Jesus. The soldiers cast lots for His garments as the Psalm had said. The rulers of the people had quoted it against Him. Now Jesus Himself recites the Psalm as a prayer.

He applies the Psalm to Himself in His own human nature. In the Psalm the author presents Himself as a man apparently abandoned by God. He is a ‘worm and no man: the reproach of men and the outcast of the people’ (Psalm 21:8). He has been laughed to scorn; His hope in the Lord has been mocked; He has been ‘dug’ in his hands and feet (Psalm 21:8-9, 17). Now all these things are true of Jesus on the Cross. But the speaker in the Psalm, the ‘poor man’ of the Psalm, hoped in the Lord and the Lord did not forsake him. He will declare the name of the Lord to his brethren. And because of this ‘the ends of the earth shall remember, and shall be converted to the Lord: and all the kindreds of the Gentiles shall adore in his sight… and to him my soul shall live: and my seed shall serve him. There shall be declared to the Lord a generation to come: and the heavens shall show forth his justice to a people that shall be born, which the Lord hath made’ (Psalm 21:23, 28-32).


The words of Jesus on the Cross are then chiefly words of hope and of prophecy. It is true that God, even that Jesus Himself as God, has abandoned the human nature of Jesus, His body and blood, even His soul, to the torment of the cross, to the mockery and hatred of His own people. The words of Jesus testify this fact. But this passion of Jesus will give birth to a new people who will worship truly the one true God, Who is Father, Son and Holy Spirit.


Some of the bystanders, not understanding correctly the words of Jesus, thought that He was calling on the prophet Elias. One of the soldiers, taking pity on Him, dipped a sponge in a mixture of water and vinegar, and tried to slake the thirst of Jesus, Who had just said, ‘I thirst’ (John 19:28). When the bystanders would have stopped the soldier, as if he were entering into their raillery, ‘Wait, let us see whether Elias is coming to take him down’ (Mark 15:36).

Jesus drank from the sponge. Then He said, ‘It is consummated’ (John 19:30). Then, in full control of Himself, He said, ‘Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit’ (Luke 23:46). With this He bowed His head and died. Thus there was accomplished on a Cross at Calvary the great drama of human redemption. Jesus, the son of God, Who had become also the Son of Man, gave up His human life, bled to death in suffering and ignominy for the salvation of men.


In the beginning, in some mysterious trial whose nature and details are not known to us, Satan and the angels who followed him had rebelled against God. Thus sin entered God’s creation for the first time. Then, in the beginning of human history, Adam, through pride and weakness, fell victim to the seduction of Satan and mankind fell under the curse of sin.

But God, in His love for men, determined to save men. Here at Calvary God’s plan for human salvation is accomplished. Jesus, the Son of God, God Himself, gives up His human life as a sacrifice of expiation, a sacrifice of propitiation to God for sin. ‘To this end the Son of God appeared, that he might destroy the works of the devil’ (1 John 3:8). ‘In this has the love of God been shown in our case, that God has sent his only begotten Son into the world, that we may live through him. In this is the love, not that we have loved God, but that he has first loved us, and sent his Son a propitiation for our sins’ (1 John 4:9-10). ‘In this we have come to know his love, that he laid down his life for us’ (1 John 3:16).


Certainly, in the mind of Jesus, He was dying on the Cross for the salvation of mankind. He was offering His life for men. The miraculous works He had already accomplished, the spirituality of His teaching, these surely would recommend belief in His mission. But the conclusion of His story is still to come. The sequel to His passion and death are a divine sign of the validity of His mission to preach the Kingdom of God to men, of the efficacy of His suffering and death to save men.”
– Martin J. Healy S.T.D., 1959 (headings in capital letters added afterwards)


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Then the Spirit led Jesus into the desert that he might be put to the test by the devil. After spending forty days and nights without food, Jesus was hungry.


Then the devil came to him and said, “If you are the Son of God, order these stones to turn into bread.” But Jesus answered, “Scripture says: ‘One does not live on bread alone, but on every word that comes from the mouth of God’.”


Then the devil took Jesus to a very high mountain, and showed him all the nations of the world in all their greatness and splendour. And he said, “All this will I give you, if you kneel down and worship me.” Then Jesus answered, “Be off, Satan! Scripture says: ‘Worship the Lord your God and serve him alone’!”

Then the devil left him, and angels came to serve him.

V. The Gospel of the Lord.
R. Praise to you, Lord Jesus Christ.


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“We were greatly impoverished by one man and one woman; let us thank God, however, that all things are now restored to us through another man and another woman, and with a profusion of grace. Furthermore this restoration has not been in proportion to the injury; indeed its liberality has exeeded the extent of the harm. Thus the most wise and most kind Creator has not broken the bruised reed but has renewed its life. He gave us a new Adam and a new Eve in Mary.”


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“The baptism of Jesus by John – or at least the mysterious happenings associated with it – seems to herald the beginning of the public ministry of Jesus. As John himself indicated, Jesus did not need a baptism unto the remission of sins or unto repentance. It was, then, not so much the simple human event of the washing of Jesus in the Jordan by John that was significant; it was rather the divinely caused events which accompanied that washing. The descent of the Holy Spirit of God in the form of a dove, the voice of the Father saying, ‘This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased’ – these are the significant happenings on that occasion. These happenings are a message from God announcing that Jesus is most pleasing and acceptable to God. They are the divine seal of approval placed beforehand on the work of Jesus for the accomplishment of God’s plan to save mankind.


It is not clear from the texts of the Gospel whether or not any others than John and Jesus saw the dove and heard the voice from heaven. But John, as we shall see later, saw the dove and realised the identity of Jesus as the Son of God. He was prepared then to give testimony to Jesus. Jesus himself heard the voice of His Father and felt the power of the Spirit hovering over Him. Under the guidance of the Spirit He withdrew into the desert. There He fasted for forty days and forty nights. At the end of this period God allowed the devil to tempt Him.


The nature of the temptations by which the devil tried Jesus seems to indicate that he did not know the true identity of Jesus. He probably realised that Jesus was a threat to his own dominion over the lives and destinies of men. At this moment he would try to determine more exactly the nature and strength of this threat.



He begins with a temptation that is both subtle and a tribute to the reality of the human nature of Jesus. Jesus had fasted for forty days and forty nights. He was hungry. The devil appeals to this hunger, thus acknowledging the real humanity of Jesus. ‘If thou art the Son of God,’ he says, ‘command that these stones become loaves of bread’ (Matthew 4:3). But this temptation is not simply an appeal to the physical hunger of Jesus. The devil knows that Jesus is someone highly pleasing to God. He knows that Jesus also realises this. If Jesus is only a man highly favoured by God, then it may be possible to appeal to His vanity, to His pride in His close relationship of God. And so he does not say to Jesus, ‘You are hungry. Serve me and I will give you bread to eat.’ Instead he says, ‘If you are highly favoured by God, if you are so close to God as to be called the ‘Son of God,’ then call upon the divine power to assist you, ask God to work a miracle for you. Command that these stones become loaves of bread.’


Now the hunger of Christ was a legitimate human need. The desire to satisfy it was a natural and a good desire. But there are ordinary ways to satisfy this need. The devil is tempting Jesus to satisfy the urgings of vanity by a miraculous display of power.

Jesus answers: ‘Not by bread alone does man live, but by every word that comes forth from the mouth of God’ (Matthew 4:4). In effect Jesus is saying: There is a higher law ruling the world than the law of human desire. Man must not so desire even the food which sustains life that he will seek it outside of or apart from the will and the Law of God. Man must regulate his desires and their satisfaction by the Law of God.


Then the devil led Jesus to the pinnacle of the Temple and said to Him, ‘If thou art the Son of God, throw thyself down; for it is written, ‘He will give his angels charge concerning thee; and upon their hands they shall bear thee up, lest thou dash thy foot against a stone’ ‘(Matthew 4:5-6). Here again the devil tries to appeal to vanity.

If Jesus is the Messias, the One sent by God to redeem Israel, then surely God will care for Him. God will not allow Him to be injured. Moreover, by working such a spectacular miracle before the crowd assembled in the Temple Jesus can begin His work in a blaze of glory; He can attract many men to Himself at once. But apparently it was not God’s will that Jesus should act in this way. Jesus therefore rejects the suggestion of the devil and replies, ‘Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God’ (Matthew 6:7).


Finally the devil takes Jesus to the top of a high mountain and shows Him the kingdoms of the world and says to Him, ‘All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me’ (Matthew 4:9). In his first two attempts the devil has failed to induce Jesus to make a show of His power.

Now He tries to seduce Jesus with the promise of power over all the kingdoms of the world. It is true, of course, that the devil by his temptations has caused man to forget God and to that extent has made himself the master of the world. But it is not true that the world is wholly his. In fact, at this moment he probably fears that Jesus has been sent by God to wrest the world from such dominion as he possesses over it. If Jesus be merely a man, perhaps he can be tempted by offering him the rule of the world.


But Jesus has not come to establish an earthly kingdom. He answers, ‘Begone, Satan! for it is written, ‘The Lord thy God shalt thou worship and him only shalt thou serve” (Matthew 4:10). At these words the devil left Him. Jesus had won the victory. But, as St Luke suggests, the devil will return at some later time to resume the struggle. ‘He departed from him for a while’ (Luke 4:13).


Since this temptation of Jesus by the devil took place in secret, with no witnesses, it is obvious that it became known only later when Jesus Himself must have told it to His followers. Why did God allow it to take place? The ways of God, we know, are not fully understood by men. This much at least we can conjecture: as Adam, the first head of the human race, had in the beginning of his work in the world fallen victim to the temptation of the devil, so it was fitting that Jesus, Whom St Paul will later speak of as the new head of the human race, should encounter the devil face to face and overcome him.”
– Martin J. Healy S.T.D., 1959


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